The subject of the numerical investigation is an ellipsoidal head with a central (axis-symmetrical) nozzle. The nozzle is loaded by axial load force. The ellipsoidal head is under axial-symmetrical compression load. The numerical FEM model is elaborated. The calculation will provide the critical loads and equilibrium paths for the sample head.. The investigation will measure the influence of the diameter of the nozzle on the critical state of the ellipsoidal head.
Buckling of the stiffened flange of a thin-walled member is reduced to the buckling analysis of the cantilever plate, elastically restrained against rotation, with the free edge stiffener, which is susceptible to deflection.Longitudinal stress variation is taken into account using a linear function and a 2nd degree parabola. Deflection functions for the plate and the stiffener, adopted in the study, made it possible to model boundary conditions and different buckling modes at the occurrence of longitudinal stress variation. Graphs of buckling coefficients are determined for different load distributions as a function of the elastic restraint coefficient and geometric details of the stiffener. Exemplary buckling modes are presented.
The paper presents a certain way which determines the critical buckling force for a micro-heterogeneous FGM plate band. A stiffness matrix of an individual cell of such band, different for various cells, has been determined. The obtained matrix can also be treated as a variable stiffness matrix of a “superelement” in the Finite Element Method. A computational algorithm for the critical force as well as the way of testing of its correctness has also been presented. The results obtained for various support conditions have been compared to the values known from the literature. The influence of the number of cells on the critical buckling force has been investigated.
A buckling analysis of temperature-dependent embedded plates reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) subjected to a magnetic field is investigated. The SWCNTs are distributed as uniform (UD) and three types of functionally graded nanotubes (FG), in which the material properties of the nano-composite plate are estimated based on the mixture rule. The surrounding temperature-dependent elastic medium is simulated as Pasternak foundation. Based on the orthotropic Mindlin plate theory, the governing equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. The buckling load of the structure is calculated based on an exact solution by the Navier method. The influences of elastic medium, magnetic field, temperature and distribution type, and volume fractions of SWCNT are shown on the buckling of the plate. Results indicate that CNT distribution close to the top and bottom are more efficient than that distributed near the mid-plane for increasing the stiffness of the plates.
The paper is an exploration of the optimal design parameters of a space-constrained electromagnetic vibration-based generator. An electromagnetic energy harvester is composed of a coiled polyoxymethylen circular shell, a cylindrical NdFeB magnet, and a pair of helical springs. The magnet is vertically confined between the helical springs that serve as a vibrator. The electrical power connected to the coil is actuated when the energy harvester is vibrated by an external force causing the vibrator to periodically move through the coil. The primary factors of the electrical power generated from the energy harvester include a magnet, a spring, a coil, an excited frequency, an excited amplitude, and a design space. In order to obtain maximal electrical power during the excitation period, it is necessary to set the system’s natural frequency equal to the external forcing frequency. There are ten design factors of the energy harvester including the magnet diameter (Dm), the magnet height (Hm), the system damping ratio (ζsys), the spring diameter (Ds), the diameter of the spring wire (ds), the spring length (ℓs), the pitch of the spring (ps), the spring’s number of revolutions (Ns), the coil diameter (Dc), the diameter of the coil wire (dc), and the coil’s number of revolutions (Nc). Because of the mutual effects of the above factors, searching for the appropriate design parameters within a constrained space is complicated. Concerning their geometric allocation, the above ten design parameters are reduced to four (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc). In order to search for optimal electrical power, the objective function of the electrical power is maximized by adjusting the four design parameters (Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc) via the simulated annealing method. Consequently, the optimal design parameters of Dm, Hm, ζsys, and Nc that produce maximum electrical power for an electromagnetic energy harvester are found.
An attempt is made in the current research to obtain the fundamental buckling torque and the associated buckled shape of an annular plate. The plate is subjected to a torque on its outer edge. An isotropic homogeneous plate is considered. The governing equations of the plate in polar coordinates are established with the aid of the Mindlin plate theory. Deformations and stresses of the plate prior to buckling are determined using the axisymmetric flatness conditions. Small perturbations are then applied to construct the linearised stability equations which govern the onset of buckling. To solve the highly coupled equations in terms of displacements and rotations, periodic auxiliary functions and the generalised differential quadrature method are applied. The coupled linear algebraic equations are a set of homogeneous equations dealing with the buckling state of the plate subjected to a unique torque. Benchmark results are given in tabular presentations for combinations of free, simply-supported, and clamped types of boundary conditions. It is shown that the critical buckling torque and its associated shape highly depend upon the combination of boundary conditions, radius ratio, and the thickness ratio.
In this paper, the authors investigate a cylindrical shell reinforced by carbon nanotubes. The critical buckling load is calculated using analytical method when it is subjected to compressive axial load. The Mori-Tanaka method is firstly utilized to estimate the effective elastic modulus of composites having aligned oriented straight CNTs. The eigenvalues of the problem are obtained by means of an analytical approach based on the optimized Rayleigh-Ritz method. There is presented a study on the effects of CNTs volume fraction, thickness and aspect ratio of the shell, CNTs orientation angle, and the type of supports on the buckling load of cylindrical shells. Furthermore the effect of CNTs agglomeration is investigated when CNTs are dispersed none uniformly in the polymer matrix. It is shown that when the CNTs are arranged in 90 degrees direction, the highest critical buckling load appears. Also, the results are plotted for different longitudinal and circumferential mode numbers. There is a specific value for aspect ratio of the cylinder that minimizes the buckling load. The results reveal that for very low CNTs volume fractions, the volume fraction of inclusions has no important effect on the critical buckling load.
The analytical approach is used for checking the stability of laterally unrestrained bisymmetric beams. The stability equations for simply supported beams are solved approximately using the Bubnov–Galerkin method . The lateral buckling moment depends on bending distribution and on the load height effect. Each of applied concentrated and distributed loads, may have arbitrary direction and optional coordinate for the applied force along the cross section’s height. Derived equations allow for simple, yet fast control of lateral buckling moment estimated by FEM .
Assessment of the flexural buckling resistance of bisymmetrical I-section beam-columns using FEM is widely discussed in the paper with regard to their imperfect model. The concept of equivalent geometric imperfections is applied in compliance with the so-called Eurocode’s general method. Various imperfection profiles are considered. The global effect of imperfections on the real compression members behaviour is illustrated by the comparison of imperfect beam-columns resistance and the resistance of their perfect counterparts. Numerous FEM simulations with regard to the stability behaviour of laterally and torsionally restrained steel structural elements of hot-rolled wide flange HEB section subjected to both compression and bending about the major or minor principal axes were performed. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analyses, GMNA for perfect structural elements and GMNIA for imperfect ones, preceded by LBA for the initial curvature evaluation of imperfect member configuration prior to loading were carried out. Numerical modelling and simulations were conducted with use of ABAQUS/Standard program. FEM results are compared with those obtained using the Eurocode’s interaction criteria of Method 1 and 2. Concluding remarks with regard to a necessity of equivalent imperfection profiles inclusion in modelling of the in-plane resistance of compression members are presented.
In this paper were conducted virtual tests to assess the impact of geometry changes on the response of metallic hexagonal honeycomb structures to applied loadings. The lateral compressive stress state was taken into consideration. The material properties used to build numerical models were assessed in laboratory tests of aluminium alloy 7075. The modelling at meso-scale level allow to comprehensive study of honeycomb internal structure. The changes of honeycomb geometry elements such as: fillets radius of the cell edges in the vicinity of hexagonal vertexes, wall thickness were considered. The computations were conducted by using finite element method with application of the ABAQUS finite element method environment. Elaborated numerical models allowed to demonstrate sensitivity of honeycomb structures damage process response to geometry element changes. They are a proper tools to perform optimization of the honeycomb structures. They will be also helpful in designing process of modern constructions build up of the considered composite constituents in various branches of industry. Moreover, the obtained results can be used as a guide for engineers. Conducted virtual tests lead to conclusion that simplification of the models of internal honeycomb structure which have become commonplace among both engineers and scientist can lead to inaccurate results.
The main idea of this work is to demonstrate an application of the generalized perturbation-based Stochastic Finite Element Method for a determination of the reliability indicators concerning elastic stability for a certain spectrum of the civil engineering structures. The reliability indicator is provided after the Eurocode according to the First Order Reliability Method, and computed using the higher order Taylor expansions with random coefficients. Computational implementation provided by the hybrid usage of the FEM system ROBOT and the computer algebra system MAPLE enables for reliability analysis of the critical forces in the most popular civil engineering structures like simple Euler beam, 2 and 3D single and multi-span steel frames, as well as polyethylene underground cylindrical shell. A contrast of the perturbation-based numerical approach with the Monte-Carlo simulation technique for the entire variability of the input random dispersion included into the Euler problem demonstrates the probabilistic efficiency of the perturbation method proposed.
This article focuses on the finite element analysis (FEA) of the nonlinear behavior of a layered functionally graded material (FGM) plate as concerns displacement, stresses, critical buckling load and fundamental frequency. The material properties of each layer in an FGM plate are assessed according to a ceramic based simple power law distribution and the rules of mixture. The finite element model of a layered FGM plate is developed using ANSYS®15.0 software. The developed finite element model is used to study the static and dynamic responses of an FGM plate. In this paper, the effects of power law distribution, thickness ratio, aspect ratio and boundary conditions are investigated for central displacement, transverse shear stress, transverse normal stress, critical buckling load and fundamental frequency, and the obtained FEA results are in sound agreement with the literature test data results. Since the FGM is used in a high temperature environment, the FE analysis is performed for the FGM plate under a thermal field and then correlated. Finally, the FGM plate is analyzed under a thermomechanical load by using the current FE concept.
The study presents the results of theoretical investigations into lateral torsional buckling (LTB) of bi-symmetric I-beams, elastically restrained against warping at supports. Beam loading schemes commonly used in practice are taken into account. The whole range of stiffness of the support joints, from free warping to warping fully restrained, is considered. To determine the critical moment, the energy method is used. The function of the beam twist angle is described with power polynomials that have simple physical interpretation. Computer programs written in symbolic language for numerical analysis are developed. General approximation formulas are devised. Detailed calculations are performed for beams with end-plate joints. Critical moments determined with programs and approximation formulas are compared with the results obtained by other researchers and with those produced by FEM. Very good accuracy of results is obtained.
Thin-walled bars currently applied in metal construction engineering belong to a group of members, the cross-section resistance of which is affected by the phenomena of local or distortional stability loss. This results from the fact that the cross-section of such a bar consists of slender-plate elements. The study presents the method of calculating the resistance of the cross-section susceptible to local buckling which is based on the loss of stability of the weakest plate (wall). The "Critical Plate" (CP) was identified by comparing critical stress in cross-section component plates under a given stress condition. Then, the CP showing the lowest critical stress was modelled, depending on boundary conditions, as an internal or cantilever element elastically restrained in the restraining plate (RP). Longitudinal stress distribution was accounted for by means of a constant, linear or non-linear (acc. the second degree parabola) function. For the critical buckling stress, as calculated above, the local critical resistance of the cross-section was determined, which sets a limit on the validity of the Vlasov theory. In order to determine the design ultimate resistance of the cross-section, the effective width theory was applied, while taking into consideration the assumptions specified in the study. The application of the Critical Plate Method (CPM) was presented in the examples. Analytical calculation results were compared with selected experimental findings. lt was demonstrated that taking into consideration the CP elastic restraint and longitudinal stress variation results in a more accurate representation of thin-walled element behaviour in the engineering computational model