The paper, which is a summary and supplement of previous works and research, presents the results of numerical and physical modeling of the GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3 duplex cast steel thin-walled castings production. To obtain thin-walled castings with wall in the thinnest place even below 1 mm was used the centrifugal casting technology and gravity casting. The analyzed technology (centrifugal casting) enables making elements with high surface quality with reduced consumption of batch materials and, as a result, reducing the costs of making a unitary casting. The idea behind the production of cast steel with the use of centrifugal technology was to find a remedy for the problems associated with unsatisfactory castability of the tested alloy. The technological evaluation of the cast construction was carried out using the Nova Flow & Solid CV 4.3r8 software. Numerical simulations of crystallization and cooling were carried out for a casting without a gating system and sinkhead located in a mold in accordance with the pouring position. It was assumed that the analyzed cast will be made in the sand form with dimensions 250×250×120 mm.
The temperature of liquid steel for continuous casting determines the casting speed and cooling conditions. The failure to meet the required casting process parameters may result in obtaining slabs of inconsistent quality. Numerical methods allow for real processes to be modelled. There are professional computer programs on the market, so the results of the simulations allow us to understand the processes that occur during casting and solidification of a slab. The study attempts to evaluate the impact of the superheat temperature on the slab structure based on the industrial operating parameters of the continuous casting machine.
Analysis of the use of the Russian materials (liquid glass and softening additives) has been made in accordance with the modern requirements for use in the technological processes of casting as binding materials in the production of large-sized steel railway casting. The reasons for poor knockout of liquid glass mixtures have been investigated. A complex action softening additive has been recommended for a better knocking-out ability. This solution provides a softening effect at the points of maximum formation of the liquid glass matrix strength in the processes of polymorphic transformation of the material under the influence of elevated temperatures as the result of filling the mold cavity by the melt. It has been shown that the use of additives of complex action leads to the decrease in the specific work of the knockout by four – seven times depending on the composition of the mixture and the design features of the casting. Experimental-industrial tests of the proposed method for softening the liquid glass mixtures have been made and the "Front Buffer Stop" casting has been made (for the rolling stock of locomotives and railway wagons). The tests confirmed the effectiveness and expediency of implementation of new liquid glass mixtures with softening additives in conditions of foundry enterprises.
Results of investigations of wear resistant of two species of cast steel were introduced in the article (low-alloyed and chromium cast steel) on the background of the standard material which was low alloy wear resistant steel about the trade name CREUSABRO ®8000. The investigations were executed with two methods: abrasive wears in the stream of loose particles (the stream of quartz sand) and abrasive wears particles fixed (abrasive paper with the silicon carbide). Comparing the results of investigations in the experiments was based about the counted wear index which characterizes the wears of the studied material in the relation to the standard material.
In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast proces so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
Structure, and thus the mechanical properties of steel are primarily a function of chemical composition and the solidification process which can be influenced by the application of the inoculation treatment. This effect depends on the modifier used. The article presents the results of studies designed to assess the effects of structural low alloy steel inoculation by selected modifying additives. The study was performed on nine casts modeled with different inoculants, assessment of the procedure impact was based on the macrostructure of made castings. The ratio of surface area equivalent to the axial zone of the crystals and columnar crystals zone was adopted as a measure of the inoculation effect.
The paper presents the results of simulation of alloy layer formation process on the model casting. The first aim of this study was to determine the influence of the location of the heat center on alloy layer’s thickness with the use of computer simulation. The second aim of this study was to predict the thickness of the layer. For changes of technological parameters, the distribution of temperature in the model casting and temperature changes in the characteristic points of the casting were found for established changes of technological parameters. Numerical calculations were performed using programs NovaFlow&Solid. The process of obtaining the alloy layer with good quality and proper thickness depends on: pouring temperature, time of premould hold at the temperature above 1300o C. The obtained results of simulation were loaded to authorial program Preforma 1.1 in order to determine the predicted thickness of the alloy casting
The paper presents the results of investigation into the technological possibility of making light-section castings of GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 cast steel. For making castings with a wall thickness in the thinnest place as small as below 1 mm, the centrifugal casting technology was employed. The technology under consideration enables items with high surface quality to be obtained, while providing a reduced consumption of the charge materials and, as a result, a reduction in the costs of unit casting production.
The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion – the intergranular one – occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.
In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.
In this study, we investigated the bonding mechanism of surface-treated steel with an Al-Si alloy in order to produce steel-aluminum (STL-Al) hybrid composite materials by cast-bonding. The results showed that there are differences in the phase and properties of the hybrid composite materials bonded specimens depending on the surface treatment of the steel sheet used, and that the bonding conditions can be controlled further by detailed conditions of the surface treatment. Based on the interfacial bonding strengths measured here, the galvanized surface treatment induced metallurgical bonding to form a reaction layer on the bonding surface and was determined to be the most effective surface treatment.
The paper presents the results of research on the microstructure of GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3 cast steels with a varying carbon content. The cause for undertaking the research were technological problems with hot cracking in bulk castings of duplex cast steel with a carbon content of approx. 0.06% and with 23% Cr, 8.5% Ni, 3% Mo and 2.4% Cu. The research has shown a significant effect of increased carbon content on the ferrite and austenite microstructure morphology, while exceeding the carbon content of 0.06% results in a change of the shape of primary grains from equiaxial to columnar.
The paper attempts to analyze distortions of cast iron and cast steel rings, after heat treatment cycles. The factors influencing distortion are: chemical composition of material, sample geometry, manufacturing process, hardenability, temperature and heat treatment method. Standard distortion tests are performed on C-ring samples. We selected a ring-model, which approximate the actual part, so that findings apply to gear rings. Because distortion depends on so many variables, this study followed strictly defined procedures. The research was started by specifying the appropriate geometry of the samples. Then, the heat treatment was conducted and samples were measured again. The obtained results allow to determine the value of the resulting distortion and their admissibility. The research will be used to evaluate the possibility of using the material to produce parts of equipment operated under extreme load conditions.
The paper is concerned with comparing the methods for determining the ferrite content in castings from duplex stainless steels. It uses Schaeffler diagram, empirical formula based calculation, image analysis of metallographic sample, X-ray diffraction and measurement with a feritscope. The influence of wall thickness of the casting on the ferrite content was tested too. The results of the experiments show that the casting thickness of 25 or 60 mm does not have a significant effect on the measured amount of ferrite. The image analysis of metallographic sample and the measurement with the feritscope appear to be the most suitable methods. On the contrary, predictive methods, such as Schaeffler diagram or empirical formula based calculation are only indicative and cannot replace the real measurements. X-ray diffraction seems to be the least suitable measuring method. Values of ferrite content measured in such a way often deviated from the values measured by image analysis and with feritscope.
The paper presents the technology of manufacturing layered castings, consisting of grey cast iron (base part) and high-chromium stainless steel (working part/layer). The aim of researches was an attempt of integration of heat treatment of steel X46Cr13 grade with founding of grey cast iron in bimetallic system and determination of the influence of cooling rate of bimetallic system in classical sand mould with bentonite on microstructure and hardness of the working layer. The castings were manufactured using mould cavity preparation method, where steel plate was poured by grey cast iron using different pouring temperature and thickness of base part. Then, the quality of joint between cast iron and steel plate was estimated by using ultrasonic non-destructive testing. The efficiency of heat treatment process was analysed by measurement of hardness and in metallographic examination. Conducted studies showed, that self-hardening’s ability of steel X46Cr13 let obtain technologically usable layered casting characterized by hardness of working surface up to 35 HRC.
This article discusses the influence of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) surfacing of duplex cast steel on its hardness and structure. The samples of 24Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo ferritic-austenitic cast steel were subjected to single-overlay processes with the use of solid wire having the chemical composition similar to that of the duplex cast steel. As a result of the surfacing, the welds were obtained that had no welding imperfections with a smooth transition to the base material. In the test without the heat treatment, directly below the fusion line, we observe a ferrite band with a width of approximately 200 m without visible austenite areas. Some of the samples were then solution treated (1060°C). Both variants, without and after solution heat treatment, were subjected to testing. Significant changes in the microstructure of the joint were observed after the heat treatment process (heat affected zone and weld microstructure changes). In both areas, an increase in the austenite volume fraction after solution heat treatment was observed. Changes in the microhardness of the ferrite in the HAZ area directly below the fusion line were also observed.
The article shows results of studies of primary crystallization and wear resistance of Cr-Ni-Mo cast steel intended for work in corrosive and abrasive conditions. The studies of primary crystallization were conducted with use of TDA method and modified tester allowing measurement casting cooling time influence on the cooling and crystallization curves of studied alloys. After heat treatment of examined cast steel wear tests of the samples were conducted on pin-on-disc type device.
In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.
The present paper describe the issue of tool materials wear in a high temperature conditions. The investigations were performed at the cast steel tool material at the tribological contact to the structural steel. The investigations aim was to determine the role of microstructure in a tribological properties between the structural steel and tool material. The results of such investigation could be referenced to the industry conditions and could answer about the problems of tool materials wear. The observations of the wear mechanisms were referred to the microstructure of the mill rolls. The laboratory tests ware aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment modification effect on the cast steels properties. A significant role of the morphology of ledeburitic cementite and secondary cementite on the tribological properties was exhibited. The investigations assumed the presence of an austenitic matrix with primary and secondary cementite. Influence of varying morphology carbides was described. in the cast steel microstructure. The investigation results make possible to point to a direction of carbide morphology change with the purpose of obtaining the assumed properties of hot operation tools.
In this study, Taguchi method is used to find out the effect of micro alloying elements like vanadium, niobium and titanium on the hardness and tensile strength of the normalized cast steel. Based on this method, plan of experiments were made by using orthogonal arrays to acquire the data on hardness and tensile strength. The signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to investigate the effect of these micro alloying elements on these two mechanical properties of the micro alloyed normalized cast steel. The results indicated that in the micro alloyed normalized cast steel both these properties increases when compared to non-micro-alloyed normalized cast steel. The effect of niobium addition was found to be significantly higher to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength when compared to other micro alloying elements. The maximum hardness of 200HV and the maximum tensile strength of 780 N/mm2 were obtained in 0.05%Nb addition micro alloyed normalized cast steel. Micro-alloyed with niobium normalized cast steel have the finest and uniform microstructure and fine pearlite colonies distributed uniformly in the ferrite. The optimum condition to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength were determined. The results were verified with experiments.
The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T) and GX39Cr13 (LH14). The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10) and Cr (GX39Cr13). The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.
This paper presents influence of rare earth metals (REM) on the properties of GP240GH cast carbon steel. The research has been performed on successive industrial melts. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metal was modified. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. It was found that non metallic inclusions the cracking mechanism of Charpy specimens and the impact strength were all changed. The following properties were tested: mechanical properties (σy, σUTS), plastic properties (necking, elongation) and impact strength (SCI). In the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated.
In the high-alloy, ferritic - austenitic (duplex) stainless steels high tendency to cracking, mainly hot-is induced by micro segregation processes and change of crystallization mechanism in its final stage. The article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier papers [1 - 4]. In the range of high temperature cracking appear one mechanism a decohesion - intergranular however, depending on the chemical composition of the steel, various structural factors decide of the occurrence of hot cracking. The low-carbon and low-alloy cast steel casting hot cracking cause are type II sulphide, in high carbon tool cast steel secondary cementite mesh and / or ledeburite segregated at the grain solidified grains boundaries, in the case of Hadfield steel phosphorus - carbide eutectic, which carrier is iron-manganese and low solubility of phosphorus in high manganese matrix. In duplex cast steel the additional factor increasing the risk of cracking it is very "rich" chemical composition and related with it processes of precipitation of many secondary phases.
This paper presents the results of Cr - Ni 18/9 austenitic cast steel modifications by mischmetal. The study was conducted on industrial melts. Cast steel was melted in an electric induction furnace with a capacity of 2000 kg and a basic lining crucible. .The mischmetal was introduced into the ladle during tapping of the cast steel from the furnace. The effectiveness of modification was examined with the carbon content of 0.1% and the presence of δ ferrite in the structure of cast steel stabilized with titanium. The changes in the structure of cast steel and their effect on mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion were studied. It was found that rare earth metals decrease the sulfur content in cast steel and above all, they cause a distinct change in morphology of the δ ferrite and non-metallic inclusions. These changes have improved mechanical properties. R02, Rm, and A5 and toughness increased significantly. There was a great increase of the resistance to intergranular corrosion in the Huey test. The study confirmed the high efficiency of cast steel modification by mischmetal in industrial environments. The final effect of modification depends on the form and manner of placing mischmetal into the liquid metal and the melting technology, ie the degree of deoxidation and desulfurization of the metal in the furnace.