The paper deals with the problem of defi nite article in the Gothic Bible. More specifically, it concentrates on the differences and similarities of use between the target language, i.e. Gothic, and the source language, i.e. Greek, with special attention being paid to the case of the article – nominative, genitive, dative or accusative. It is part of a larger endeavor aiming at the analysis of the whole Gothic Bible in this respect. This time the Gospel of John is taken into consideration, following an earlier study which concentrated on the Gospel of Matthew. In the paper it will not only be observed how frequently Gothic omits the definite article in places where Greek uses it in the Gospel of John, but also in what way the cases of the definite article vary in both languages due to their grammatical specificities.
The article is a presentation of the subject of a lawyer in the Russian literature of two eras – the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century. The object of comparative analysis are two literary texts: the first is the story by Leo Tolstoy – “Father Sergius” (1911), the second is a novel by the modern Russian writer – Evgeny Vodolazkin, which entitled “Laurus” (2012). The author of the article concludes that the multifariousness of the life of lawyers in both writers underlines their life experience on the way to holiness. An important element of the characters’ description is their sinfulness, in particular the fi ght against their own pride and human passion. In the case of Leo Tolstoy, the image of his literary right-wing was influenced by the writer’s views on the essence of holiness and the complex human-God relationship. In their portraits of heroes striving for spiritual perfection, both Tolstoy and Vodolazkin show a connection with the genre of hagiography.
The reliable and rapid diagnosis of infectious animal diseases presents an exceptionally im- portant aspect when considering their control and prevention. The paper describes the compara- tive evaluation of two rapid isothermal amplification methods for diagnosis of African swine fever (ASF). The robustness of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the cross-priming amplification (CPA) were compared using samples obtained from ASF confirmed animals. Both assays were evaluated in order to define their diagnostic capabilities in terms of ASF diagnosis and reproducibility of the results. Investigations showed no cross-reactivity for other pig patho- gens and no significant differences in the specificity of both assays. The sensitivity of LAMP reached 90%, while that of CPA was 70%. In conclusion, both methods are suitable for imple- mentation in preliminary ASF diagnosis but further improvements are required to enhance their diagnostic sensitivity.
Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.
In this study a cooling ejector cycle coupled to a compression heat pump is analyzed for simultaneous cooling and heating applications. In this work, the influence of the thermodynamic parameters and fluid nature on the performances of the hybrid system is studied. The results obtained show that this system presents interesting performances. The comparison of the system performances with hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and natural fluids is made. The theoretical results show that the a low temperature refrigerant R32 gives the best performance.
The task of generating fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) models of objects or scenes through a sequence of non-calibrated images is an active field of research. The recent development in algorithm optimization has resulted in many automatic solutions that can provide an accurate 3D model from texture-full objects. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is an image-based method that uses discriminative point-based feature identifier, such as SIFT, to locate feature points in the images. This method faces difficulties when presented with the objects made of homogenous or texture-less surfaces. To reconstruct such surfaces a well-known technique is to apply an artificial variety by covering the surface with a random texture pattern prior to the image capturing process. In this work, we designed three series of image patterns which are tested based on the contrast and density ratio which increases from the first to the last pattern within the same series. The performance of the patterns is evaluated by reconstructing the surface of a texture-less object and comparing it with the true data. Using the best-found patterns from the experiments, a 3D model of a Moai statue is reconstructed. The experimental results demonstrate that the density and structure of a pattern highly affects the quality of the reconstruction.
The phase jitter enables to assess quality of signals transmitted in a bi-directional, long-distance fibre optic link dedicated for dissemination of the time and frequency signals. In the paper, we are considering measurements of jitter using a phase detector the detected frequency signal and the reference signal are supplied to. To cover the wideband jitter spectrum the detected signal frequency is divided and – because of the aliasing process – higher spectral components are shifted down. We are also examining the influence of a residual jitter that occurs in the reference signal generated by filtering the jitter occurring in the same signal, whose phase fluctuations we intend to measure. Then, we are discussing the evaluation results, which were obtained by using the target fibre optic time and frequency transfer system.
The transfer function (TF) method is presently a well-known method used to detect various types of winding damage in power transformers. Although abundant research has been done on this subject using laboratory windings as test objects, it is hard to find one, whose test objects are actual large-power transformer windings. Hence, a 400 kV disc winding consisting of 86 discs is used in this paper to study turn-to-turn short circuit with the help of the TF method. To evaluate the effects of this type of fault on TF curves, some mathematical comparison algorithms are used in this research.
Magnetic-geared permanent magnet (MGPM) electrical machine is a new type of machine by incorporating magnetic gear into PM electrical machine, and it may be in operation with low-speed, high-torque and direct-driven. In this paper, three types of MGPM machines are present, and a quantitative comparison among them is performed by finite element analysis (FEA). The magnetic field distribution, stable torque and back EMF are obtained at no-load. The results show that three types of MGPM machine are suitable for different application fields respectively according to their own advantages, such as high torque and back EMF, which form an important foundation for MGPM electrical machine research.
The aim of the study is to formally compare the explanatory power of Copula-GARCH and MGARCH models. The models are estimated for logarithmic daily rates of return of two exchange rates: EUR/PLN, USD/PLN and stock market indices: SP500, BUX. The analysis is performed within the Bayesian framework. The posterior model probabilities point to AR(1)-tSBEKK(1,1) for the exchange rates and VAR(1)-tCopula-GARCH(1,1) for the stock market indices, as the superior specifications. If the marginal sampling distributions are different in terms of tail thickness, the Copula-GARCH models have higher explanatory power than the MGARCH models.
In the modern corpus of Croatian anthroponyms there are 30 personal names with the root bog (‛god’). An abundance of both published and unpublished historical sources used in this research allowed the authors to create a corpus of personal names suitable for the comparative analysis of frequency and incidence in historical sources. The continuity of the use of the root bog among Croats is presented through the analysis of historical anthroponymic records (from the oldest originating in the 11th century, to contemporary sources). The oldest available sources attest to the onset of interference and the blending of Slavic and Romanic ethnicities, foremost in coastal Dalmatian city communes. A limited frequency of these personal names was detected in the 16th century. The factors that led to this situation are not only connected to the decisions of the Council of Trent, which recommended general usage of Christian names, but can also be attributed to historical circumstances (incursion of Ottomans, subsequent migrations). Most of the 16th century attestations pertain to areas with a mixed Christian and Muslim population. In border areas, where Western states shared Eastern borders with the Ottoman Empire, the analysed attestations were quite rare. Due to constant migrations from the contact zones and the Ottoman Empire towards the interior of the Hungarian-Croatian Kingdom, these personal names were able to ”survive” the early modern period. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, usage of folk names was more frequent, most probably as a consequence of the process of Croatian national revival.
This paper proposes four different cost-effective configurations of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) in an electric city bus. A comparison is presented between a battery powered bus (battery bus) and supercapacitor powered bus in two configurations in terms of initial and operational costs. The lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery type was used in the battery bus and three of the hybrids. In the first hybrid the battery module was the same size as in the battery bus, in the second it was half the size and in the third it was one third the size. The fourth hybrid used a lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) battery type with the same energy as the LFP battery module in the battery bus. The model of LFP battery degradation is used in the calculation of its lifetime range and operational costs. For the NMC battery and supercapacitor, the manufacturers’ data have been adopted. The results show that it is profitable to use HESS in an electric city bus from both the producer and consumer point of view. The reduction of battery size and added supercapacitor module generates up to a 36% reduction of the initial energy storage system (ESS) price and up to a 29% reduction of operational costs when compared to the battery ESS. By using an NMC battery type in HESS, it is possible to reduce operational costs by up to 50% compared to an LFP battery ESS.