This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of the development of economic space. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of economic space. This set includes among others: shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, selforganization and the development out of equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, pulsative course of development process, emergence of complex spatial systems, development code of the system of regions.
The paper is aimed at presenting a study of the main limitations and problems influencing the robustness of diagnostic algorithms used in diagnostics of complex chemical processes and to present the selected exemplary solutions of how to increase it. The five major problems were identified in the study. They are associated with: uncertainties of fault detection and reasoning, changes of the diagnosed process structure, delays of fault symptoms formation and multiple faults. A brief description and exemplary solutions allowing increase of the robustness of diagnostic algorithms were given. Proposed methods were selected keeping in mind applicability for the on-line monitoring and diagnostics of complex chemical processes.
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of economic space development. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of the economic space. This set includes among others: a shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, self-organization and the development far from equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, a pulsative course of the development process, an emergence of complex spatial systems, a development code of the system of regions.
This study presents cause-effect dependencies between inputs and outputs of business transitions that are software objects designed for processing information-decision state variables in integrated enterprise process control (EntPC) systems. Business transitions are elementary components of controlling units in enterprise processes that have been defined as self-controlling, generalized business processes, which may serve not only as business processes but also as business systems or their roles. Business events, which have zero durations by definition, are interpreted as executions of business actions that are main operations of business transitions. Any ordered set of business actions, performed in the controlling unit of a given enterprise process and attributed to the same discrete-time instant, is referred to as ‘the information-decision process’. The i-d processes may be substituted by managerial business processes, performed on the lower organizational level, where durations of activity executions are greater than zero, but discrete-time periods are considerably shorter. In such a case, procedures of business actions are performed by corresponding activities of managerial processes, but on the level of business transitions the durations of their executions are imperceptible, and many different business events may occur at the same discrete-time instant. It has been demonstrated in the paper how to control business actions to ensure that a given i-d state variable may not change more than once at a given instant. Furthermore, the rules of designing the i-d process structures, which prevent random changes of transitory states, have been presented.