The image analysis consists in extracting from the information which is available to the observer of the part that is important from the perspective of the investigated process. This process usually accompanies a considerable reduction in the amount of information from the image. In the field of two-phase flows, computer image analysis can be used to determine flow and geometric parameters of flow patterns. This article presents the possibilities of using this method to determine the void fraction, vapor quality, bubble velocity and the geometric dimensions of flow patterns. The use of computer image analysis methods is illustrated by the example of HFE 7100 refrigerant methoxynonafluorobutane condensation in a glass tubular minichannel. The high speed video camera was used for the study, and the films and individual frames received during the study were analyzed.
This paper presents studies carried out in a pilot-scale plant for recovery of waste heat from a flue gas which has been built in a lignite-fired power plant. The purpose of the studies was to check the operation of the heat recovery system in a pilot scale, while the purpose of the plant was recovery of waste heat from the flue gas in the form of hot water with a temperature of approx. 90 °C. The main part of the test rig was a condensing heat exchanger designed and built on the basis of laboratory tests conducted by the authors of this paper. Tests conducted on the pilot-scale plant concerned the thermal and flow parameters of the condensing heat exchanger as well as the impact of the volumetric flow rate of the flue gas and the cooling water on the heat flux recovered. Results show that the system with a condensing heat exchanger for recovery of low-temperature waste heat from the flue gas enables the recovery of much higher heat flux as compared with conventional systems without a condensing heat exchanger.
The experimental research of environmentally friendly refrigerant HFE-7100 condensation in pipe minichannels was conducted. During the investigations of HFE-7100 condensation in a minichannel with internal diameter 2 mm together with visualization of flow patterns was made. Visualization results were compared with existing flow structure maps. The identification of the range of flow patterns occurrence during the condensation process of low-pressure refrigerant HFE-7100 was made. The tests were performed throughout the whole range of condensation process.
Flow boiling and flow condensation are often regarded as two opposite or symmetrical phenomena. Their description however with a single correlation has yet to be suggested. In the case of flow boiling in minichannels there is mostly encountered the annular flow structure, where the bubble generation is not present. Similar picture holds for the case of inside tube condensation, where annular flow structure predominates. In such case the heat transfer coefficient is primarily dependent on the convective mechanism. In the paper a method developed earlier by the first author is applied to calculations of heat transfer coefficient for inside tube condensation. The method has been verified using experimental data from literature on several fluids in different microchannels and compared to three well established correlations for calculations of heat transfer coefficient in flow condensation. It clearly stems from the results presented here that the flow condensation can be modeled in terms of appropriately devised pressure drop.
Investigations of refrigerant condensation in pipe minichannels are very challenging and complicated issue. Due to the multitude of influences very important is mathematical and computer modeling. Its allows for performing calculations for many different refrigerants under different ﬂow conditions. A large number of experimental results published in the literature allows for experimental verification of correctness of the models. In this work is presented a mathematical model for calculation of ﬂow resistance during condensation of refrigerants in the pipe minichannel. The model was developed in environment based on conservation equations. The results of calculations were verified by authors own experimental investigations results.
This paper present the results of experimental investigations of condensation of R134a refrigerant in pipe minichannels with internal diameters 0.64, 0.90, 1.40, 1.44, 1.92 and 3.30 mm subject to periodic pressure instabilities. It was established that as in conventional channels, the displacement velocity of the pressure instabilities distinctly depends on the frequency of their hydrodynamic generation. The void fraction distinctly influences the velocity of the pressure instabilities. The form of this relationship depends on the internal diameter of the minichannels and on the method of calculating the void fraction.
Anti-condensation coatings are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning and ships technology. They can store a certain amount of water in its own volume, and then return it back in favorable conditions. Anti-condensation coatings are used also to protect structures from the moisture. This paper presents the results of experimental research on heat and mass transfer in an anti-condensation coating under natural and forced convection. Experimental results are obtained for horizontal and inclined plates. Experimental data are compared with different models of computation.
The present paper describes results of experimental investigations of pressure drop during the condensation of R134a, R404a and R407C refrigerants in pipe minichannels with internal diameter 0.31-3.30 mm. The results concern investigations of the mean and local pressure drop in single minichannels. The results of experimental investigations were compared with the calculations according to the correlations proposed by other authors. A pressure drop during the condensation of refrigerants is described in a satisfactory manner with Friedel and Garimella correlations. On the basis of the experimental investigations, the authors proposed their own correlation for calculation of local pressure drop during condensation in single minichannels.
Helical coil heat exchangers are widely used in a variety of industry applications such as refrigeration systems, process plants and heat recovery. In this study, the effect of Reynolds number and the operating temperature on heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop for laminar flow conditions was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a shell and tube heat exchanger with a copper coiled pipe (4 mm ID, length of 1.7 m and coil pitch of 7.5 mm) in the temperature range from 243 to 273 K. Air – propan-2-ol vapor mixture and coolant (methylsilicone oil) flowed inside and around the coil, respectively. The fluid flow in the shell-side was kept constant, while in the coil it was varied from 6.6 to 26.6 m/s (the Reynolds number below the critical value of 7600). Results showed that the helical pipe provided higher heat transfer performance than a straight pipe with the same dimensions. The convective coefficients were determined using theWilson method. The values for the coiled pipe were in the range of 3–40 W/m2 ·K. They increased with increasing the gas flow rate and decreasing the coolant temperature.
Proposed is the analysis of steam condensation in the presence of inert gases in a power plant condenser. The presence of inert, noncondensable gases in a condenser is highly undesirable due to its negative effect on the efficiency of the entire cycle. In general, thermodynamics has not provided an explicit criterion for assessing the irreversible heat transfer process. The method presented here enables to evaluate precisely processes occurring in power plant condensers. This real process is of particular interest as it involves a number of thermal layers through which heat transfer is observed. The analysis was performed using a simple, known in the literature and well verified Berman’s model of steam condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases. Adapted to the geometry of the condenser, the model enables, for instance, to recognise places where non-condensable gases are concentrated. By describing with sufficient precision thermodynamic processes taking place in the vicinity of the heat transfer area segment, it is possible to determine the distributions of thermodynamic parameters on the boundaries between successive layers. The obtained results allow for the recognition of processes which contribute in varying degrees to irreversible energy degradation during steam condensation in various parts of the examined device.
The paper presents the results of experimental heat transfer and pressure drop during condensation of the single component refrigerant R134a and zeotropic mixtures R404A, R407C, and R410A in tube minichannels of internal diameter from the range 0.31–3.30 mm. The local values and the average of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in the whole range of the change in mass quality were measured. On the basis of the obtained test results there was illustrated the influence of the change of mass vapor quality, the mass flux density, and the inner diameter of channel on the studied parameters. These results were compared with the calculation results based on the relations postulated by other authors. The discrepancy range was ± 50%. On the basis of given test results own correlation was developed to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of tested refrigerants which presents the obtained results in a range of discrepancy of ±25%.
In the paper a method developed earlier by authors is applied to calculations of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling and also flow condensation for some recent data collected from literature for such fluids as R404a, R600a, R290, R32,R134a, R1234yf and other. The modification of interface shear stresses between flow boiling and flow condensation in annular flow structure are considered through incorporation of the so called blowing parameter. The shear stress between vapor phase and liquid phase is generally a function of nonisothermal effects. The mechanism of modification of shear stresses at the vapor-liquid interface has been presented in detail. In case of annular flow it contributes to thickening and thinning of the liquid film, which corresponds to condensation and boiling respectively. There is also a different influence of heat flux on the modification of shear stress in the bubbly flow structure, where it affects bubble nucleation. In that case the effect of applied heat flux is considered. As a result a modified form of the two-phase flow multiplier is obtained, in which the nonadiabatic effect is clearly pronounced.
Short state-of-the-art on the enhancement of condensation heat transfer techniques by means of condensate drainage is presented in this paper. The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) technique is suitable for dielectric media used in refrigeration, organic Rankine cycles and heat pump devices. The electric field is commonly generated in the case of horizontal tubes by means of a rod-type electrode or mesh electrodes. Authors proposed two geometries in the presented own experimental investigations. The first one was an electrode placed just beneath the tube bottom and the second one consisted of a horizontal finned tube with a double electrode placed beneath the tube. The experimental investigations of these two configurations for condensation of refrigerant R-123 have been accomplished. The obtained results confirmed that the application of the EHD technique for the investigated tube and electrode arrangement caused significant increase in heat transfer coefficient. The condensation enhancement depends both on the geometry of the electrode system and on the applied voltage.
The present paper describes the results of experimental investigations of heat transfer during condensation of R134a, R404A and R407C in pipe minichannels with internal diameters 0.31-3.30 mm. The results concern investigations of the local heat transfer coefficient. The results were compared with the correlations proposed by other authors. Within the range of examined parameters of the condensation process in minichannels made of stainless steel, it was established that the values of the heat transfer coefficient may be described with Akers et al., Mikielewicz and Shah correlations within a limited range of the mass flux density of the refrigerant and the minichannel diameter. On the basis of experimental investigations, the authors proposed their own correlation for the calculation of local heat transfer coefficient.
Analysis of the state of-the-art in research of refrigerant condensation in miniature heat exchangers, so-called multiports, was made. Results of refrigerant R407C condensation in a mini condenser made in the form of two bundles of tubular minichannels from stainless steel with an inside diameter 0.64 mm and length 100 mm have been presented. Two exchangers consisted of four minichannels and 8 minichannels have been investigated. The values of average heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drops throughout the condensation process were designated. The impact of the vapor quality of refrigerant and the mass flux density on the intensity of heat transfer and flow resistance were illustrated. A comparative analysis of test results for various refrigerants in both mini heat exchangers were made.
The paper presents the algorithms for a flue gas/water waste-heat exchanger with and without condensation of water vapour contained in flue gas with experimental validation of theoretical results. The algorithms were used for calculations of the area of a heat exchanger using waste heat from a pulverised brown coal fired steam boiler operating in a power unit with a capacity of 900 MWe. In calculation of the condensing part, the calculation results obtained with two algorithms were compared (Colburn-Hobler and VDI algorithms). The VDI algorithm allowed to take into account the condensation of water vapour for flue gas temperatures above the temperature of the water dew point. Thanks to this, it was possible to calculate more accurately the required heat transfer area, which resulted in its reduction by 19 %. In addition, the influence of the mass transfer on the heat transfer area was taken into account, which contributed to a further reduction in the calculated size of the heat exchanger - in total by 28% as compared with the Colburn-Hobler algorithm. The presented VDI algorithm was used to design a 312 kW pilot-scale condensing heat exchanger installed in PGE Belchatow power plant. Obtained experimental results are in a good agreement with calculated values.
The paper presents equations of a mathematical model to calculate flow parameters in characteristic cross-sections in the steam-water injector. In the model, component parts of the injector (steam nozzle, water nozzle, mixing chamber, condensation wave region, diffuser) are treated as a series of connected control volumes. At first, equations for the steam nozzle and water nozzle are written and solved for known flow parameters at the injector inlet. Next, the flow properties in two-phase flow comprising mixing chamber and condensation wave region are determined from mass, momentum and energy balance equations. Then, water compression in diffuser is taken into account to evaluate the flow parameters at the injector outlet. Irreversible losses due to friction, condensation and shock wave formation are taken into account for the flow in the steam nozzle. In two-phase flow domain, thermal and mechanical nonequilibrium between vapour and liquid is modelled. For diffuser, frictional pressure loss is considered. Comparison of the model predictions with experimental data shows good agreement, with an error not exceeding 15% for discharge (outlet) pressure and 1 K for outlet temperature.
The pressure of wet water vapor inside a condenser has a great impact on the efficiency of thermal cycle. The value of this pressure depends on the mass share of inert gases (air). The knowledge of the spots where the air accumulates allows its effective extraction from the condenser, thus improving the conditions of condensation. The condensation of water vapor with the share of inert gas in a model tube bank of a condenser has been analyzed in this paper. The models include a static pressure loss of the water vapor/air mixture and the resultant changes in the water vapor parameters. The mass share of air in water vapor was calculated using the Dalton’s law. The model includes changes of flow and thermodynamic parameters based on the partial pressure of water vapor utilizing programmed water vapor tables. In the description of the conditions of condensation the Nusselts theory was applied. The model allows for a deterioration of the heat flow conditions resulting from the presence of air. The paper contains calculations of the water vapor flow with the initial mass share of air in the range 0.2 to 1%. The results of calculations clearly show a great impact of the share of air on the flow conditions and the deterioration of the conditions of condensation. The data obtained through the model for a given air/water vapor mixture velocity upstream of the tube bank allow for identification of the spots where the air accumulates.