The present paper focuses on the changing interpretations of the English gerund. Since no method can accurately and uniformly account for the meanings of all instances of existing -ing forms, previous studies have offered approximate characterizations based on small samples. This study looks at the numbers of -ing derivations denoting institutionalized activities, on the assumption that these represent non-eventive readings. The derivations in question are arranged chronologically in terms of their time of coinage to compare changing productivity levels of this process relative to -ry derivations. This count shows that -ing suffi xations outnumber other nominalization processes and this trend has increased in the last two centuries.
This article presents the results of investigating the influence of tooth contact ratio in helical cylindrical gears on vibroactivity of the gearbox. Based on the measurements carried out on a laboratory test stand, time-domain and frequency-domain start-up characteristics of vibrations and acoustic pressure were determined, and vibroactivity was assessed for a gearbox in which 4 pairs of gears were successively mounted with different face contact ratios equal to, respectively, epsilon beta=1,001; 1,318; 1,574; 2,636.
This report describes the community involved in technology, organisation, and economics of theconstruction industry. The community includes mainly academics gathered around KILiW PAN, the Polish Academy of Sciences Section for Civil Engineering Projects. The results have been obtainedbased on the survey conducted in the period of 2007–2010. Some financial issues are presentedhere which influence the scope of the research underway and the didactic process. Some of theissues presented here comprise the subject matters of research, postgraduate studies, academicdegrees, as well as publications and international cooperation. Conclusions were presented in theform of suggestions in the field of research and teaching.
The analysis of the fractal dimension becomes one of the new approach features in spatial research. This approach bases on the perception of space as a living structure, an organism which in its complexity and heterogeneity is a multi-scale creation although holistically perceived. The aim of the authors was to determine the nationwide fractal dimensions for the distinguished construction categories and designation of general regularities in these layout.
The increment in the number of automobiles and the densification of the city has increased noise pollution rates. In addition, the lack of regulation in Chile regarding the acoustic insulation of façades is a problem of a growing concern. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a model of the Sound Insulation of housing, façades, stratified in Santiago, Chile, based on constructive variables. It is expected to serve as a basis for one future regulation for acoustic façades of houses. In the present study, tests based on the international ISO 140-5 standard were carried out in situ. An estimation model of the Standardized Level Difference Dls,2m,nT,w + C, was obtained based on the opening/façade proportion, and the type of glass used for the windows.
Spatial and time diversity of housing construction in Poland. Residential housing construction, as one of the most important elements of spatial development, a factor decisive for living conditions of residents, is the object of interest not only of architects, planners or local and state authorities, but increasingly also of geographers, who mainly analyze these issues in a spatial context. The article analyzes the development of construction in post-war Poland in three periods: real socialism, the transformation period and the last decade. The subject of the analysis is the number of completed dwellings/flats in total, by location (city, village) and by investors (housing cooperatives, developers, private constructors and others).
The selection of a contractor is one of the most important among decisions made by the ownerof a construction. The application of the prequalification procedure enables the selection of themost competent tenderers. Various mathematical models are helpful in carrying out prequalificationprocedure. In the paper, some selected mathematical models are briefly characterized and modelbased on the theory of fuzzy sets is offered. The applied model takes into consideration theowner’s various objectives, as well as different evaluation criteria. The results of the sensitivityanalysis of the model are also presented. Part of a computer software applying an earlier presentedprequalification mathematical model is described.
Risks pertaining to construction work relate to situations in which various events may randomly change the duration and cost of the project or worsen its quality. Because of possible significant changes of random events, favorable, moderate, and difficult conditions of construction work are considered. It is the first stage of the construction risk analysis. The probabilistic parameters of construction are identified and described by using the design characteristics model of the structure and the construction technology model. The first describes the probabilistic properties of the structure execution's technology. The second describes the probabilistic properties of the works execution. Both models contain basic probabilistic data for scheduling, cost estimating, and risk assessment of the construction.
In the paper the topic of Building Information Technology BIM is investigated. It is new in Polish circumstances technology for construction and for building product industry, which contribute to change and develop level of industrialization. Especially challenge raising from the information and introducing IT technology into daily practice is considered to provide changes in construction branch of economy. In Poland there is the hot need of start to introduce BIM as the common technology for owners of assets, facility management, construction entities, design offices, administration officers and many other players relative to construction data and processes. BIM technology introduction, basing on foreign case studies, results in cost savings, control and time reduction of investment processes and some more advantages. The perspective of digital buildings, digital infrastructure, digital roads, digital railways and digital cities is outlined at the perspective of technology challenge, but simply transfiguration of many fields of personal everyday life, where digitalization is already present and with the question when it will be common in professional activity, particularly in civil engineering.
This paper presents an investigation about acoustic absorption of mortars with partial replacement of sand by waste (plywood formwork, rice husk, and thermoplastic shoe counters), examining different levels of replacement (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%). The measurement of acoustic absorption was performed using a plane wave impedance tube with 100 mm diameter, using mortar samples of 20 mm, in frequency range 200-2000 Hz. Results demonstrated that some composite with waste presented noise reduction coefficient (NRC) above the reference mortar (NRC = 0.0343), such as a composite with 50% rice husk (NRC = 0.2757) and other with 50% of plywood waste (NRC = 0.2052). Since there is virtually no cost or difficulty to use these residuals, it may be concluded that it is a sustainable alternative to improve the acoustic comfort and reduce the impact of the waste on the environment.
The paper shows methods of analysis and assessment of partnering relations of construction enterprises with the use of questionnaires, statistics, and fuzzy logic. The results were obtained from Polish, Slovak and Ukrainian enterprises. The definition of partnering in the construction industry indicates that it is a qualitative concept. By applying a scale in the questionnaire, and due to mathematical analysis of the data, the final research result, showing the level of partnering relations of construction enterprises, is rendered quantitatively.
According to UNESCO, in 2015, the sculpture as the artistic medium was third among financed public residency art programmes. Contemporary public art and cultural programmes across Europe were focused on finding a balance between cultural identity and cultural diversity among the communities. Therefore, aesthetics and function became a significant issue related to the exploration of participatory design on public sculpture. In this paper, an adopted model of Kurt Lewin’s force field analysis was used to explore the function of sculpture in the public space. The aim was to further evaluate inclusive design to answer the question: Does contemporary sculpture in the public space evoke a certain kind of group dynamic process?
This paper brings up the issue of population aging and its influence on designing and construction of buildings in Poland. It also touches the problem of adaptation of existing facilities to the needs of the elderly and the disabled. Moreover, current trends in Polish demographics and possible outlook for the next 45 years has been presented. The author presents the current legal state concerning rules and regulations on the aspects of adjusting the buildings and their parts to the needs of the disabled. Additionally, the dimensions and the areas of movement for the disabled as well as the primary functional and requirements for bathrooms have been described. In the next paragraph, a concept of Ambient Assisted Living with examples of sanitary equipment for use in residential buildings has been propose.
The influence that general contractors and subcontractors have on the operation of a company is immense. Keeping this in mind, the authors have decided to develop and algorithm based on the analysis of partnering relations between construction companies that would select the best possible construction company for the purposes of cooperation. This algorithm, developed for a given construction company, is meant to support its decision-making system in the field of the selection of another construction company to cooperate with. The author has made references to earlier research, in which she had used the ELECTRE III method, and in which she bad analysed the possibility of applying the BIPOLAR method in order to solve the problem of the selection of a construction company to develop partnering relations with. The author provided an example of the calculations performed for a selection of construction companies.
This article aims to identify potential risk factors affecting the implementation and synchronisation of surveying and construction works during building and operation of roads. The task was executed on the basis of literature studies and experience. The article is an introduction to the research that has been conducted by the authors on the reasonably precise index of factors which one may deal with during the implementation of facilities of this type. The raised issue is crucial for financial and time reasons, but what is important in the roads construction - also for social ones, as prolonged traffic disruption adversely affects the environment.
Supplementing well recognised practical models of project and construction management, based on probabilistic and fuzzy events may make possible to transfer the weight of the change and extra orders assessment from the qualitative form to a quantitative one. This assessment, however, is naturally burdened with an immeasurable, subjective aspect. Elaboration of probability of occurrence in a construction project unforeseen building works requires application (in addition to the non-measureable, qualitative criteria) of measurable (quantitative) criteria which still appear during construction project implementation. In reimbursable engineering contracts, a random event described as an extra, supplementary building work has a random character and occurs with a specific likelihood. In lump sum contracts, on the other hand, such a random event has a fuzzy character and its occurrence is defined in a linear manner by the function of affiliation to the set of fuzzy events being identical with unforeseen events. The strive for quantitative presentation of criteria regarded by nature as qualitative and the intention to determine relations between them led to the application of the fuzzy sets theory to this issue. Their properties enable description of the unforeseen works of construction projects in an unambiguous, quantitative way.
The purpose of this article is to present the preparation of Project Risk Assessment Methodology and its mitigation in complex construction projects. The main text provides a summary of the approach, the method used and the findings. The conclusions have been drawn that the proper tools for quantifying risks have to be based on the criteria specific for mathematical statistic and probability or at least fuzziness. Function, which makes possible to categorize any risks into one of the five categories, is a combination of probability and the impact on one of the items: people and their safety or budget, cost, schedule and planning or quality and performance. An attempt was made to express numerically the relationship between risks impacts and their level of likelihood. Also, a method of associating the influence of projects risks impacts on the extent of the likelihood of project risk occurrence which makes possible to determine the direction and the strength of this relationship was presented.
Henri Bergson as well as Gaston Milhaud undertake a radical critique of the conception of radical determinism because they both think that mind is able to act in a free and creative manner. In the article, I examine to what degree their arguments, aimed to prove this autonomy, converge. I inquire whether their endorsement of freedom of the mental acts led the two philosophers to the same conclusions regarding the cognitive extent of the intellect and therefore the parallel description of the status of scientific cognition.
The model concept, as presented in this paper, is an original solution created by the author, and can be used as a proposal to build an innovative mechanism to increase the effectiveness of programming and implementation of the development policy, and improve the quality of functioning of a building research institute. The development management system included in this model is a set of actions targeting at the effective use of human and tangible resources, undertaken in a coordinated manner and leading to the achievement of previously established objectives. The market activity of building research institutes is directly or indirectly involved in construction projects, which translates into market mechanisms, such as innovation and competitiveness. In addition, it indicates the participation of a building research institute in the engineering of construction projects as a key to entrepreneurship and implementations.
The possibility of construction disputes can be reduced, but they cannot be avoided due to the uncertain and risky nature of the building industry. Conflicts between construction parties often have very unfavourable effects, such as cost increases, poor construction quality and time extension in the schedule. Lots of studies have been carried out in order to try and avoid these disagreements. However, there are no common resolution tools or techniques due to the improving conditions and scope of contracted works. Advanced methods and dispute reasons should be fully monitored and updated for the applicable solutions. This paper discusses the current major constructional dispute reasons in Turkey. The questionnaire method was applied within the scope of this study. The questionnaire documents were randomly distributed to 80 contractors to analyse major dispute reasons in Turkey. Analysis of the questionnaire results indicates that the major current dispute causes are poor quality of performed works, delays in progress payments, inefficient site management, poorly written contracts and design mistakes.
This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.
This paper concerns the possibility of use the Jiles-Atherton extended model to describe the magnetic characteristics of construction steel St3 under mechanical stress. Results of the modelling utilizing extended Jiles-Atherton model are consistent with results of experimental measurements for magnetic hysteresis loops B(H). Material stress state determination by using non-destructive, magnetic properties based on testing techniques is an especially important problem.
The project called “Polish Cardiosurgical Robot” has been developed by Foundation for Cardiac Surgery Development since year 2000. Within the project the telemanipulator to perform the endoscopic cardiosurgical operations has been designed, manufactured and examined. In the following paper the development of construction of arms for RobIn Heart 0, RobIn Heart 1, RobIn Heart 3 versions of the robot as well as the fixing system has been presented. In the preliminary phase of the project the requirements for mechanical construction were analyzed. Additional requirements enhancing functionality of the construction were also defined. Analyses of the planned development of the construction and ways of its possible applications were performed.
During operation, construction machines generate high noise levels which can adversely affect the health and the job performance of operators. The noise control techniques currently applied to reduce the noise transmitted into the operator cab are all based on the decrease of the sound pressure level. Merely reducing this noise parameter may be suitable for the compliance with the legislative requirements but, unfortunately, it is not sufficient to improve the subjective human response to noise. The absolute necessity to guarantee comfortable and safe conditions for workers, requires a change of perspective and the identification of different noise control criteria able to combine the reduction of noise levels with that of psychophysical descriptors representing those noise attributes related to the subjective acoustical discomfort. This paper presents the results of a study concerning the “customization” of a methodology based on Sound Quality for the noise control of construction machines. The purpose is to define new hearing-related criteria for the noise control able to guarantee not only reduced noise levels at the operator position but also a reduced annoyance perception.
Adopting the standpoint of Construction Grammar (Goldberg 2006) and the corpus- based method known as Distinctive-Collexeme Analysis (Gries and Stefanowitsch 2004; Hilpert 2014), the investigation seeks to identify lexemes that indicate a strong preference either for the it is ADJ to V-construction or the it is ADJ that-construction. On the basis of data extracted from the academic sub-corpus of COCA, the study reveals that there are adjectives exhibiting a strong preference for one construction instead of the other, and that the constructions have a tendency to occur with adjectives evoking different semantic frames.