On the basis of observations and markings of Weddell seals in the region of the Admiralty Bay it was estimated that numbers of this species decreased systematically from about 500 to about 100 individuals from December to February. The sex structure of the local population also changed, showing a growing domination of females. Males were observed more often on coastal snow patches, females prevailed on rocky beaches close to the sea. A thesis of an increased nocturnal activity of Weddell seal was confirmed, indicating also a possibility of a two days activity cycle of this species. Synchronized among the individuals of local populations by atmoshperic conditionds.
The paper approaches an important issue of the phonological similarity of words, relevant for current research in phonotactics, word recognition, production and acquisition, by analyzing the data collected in an experiment in which 30 native speakers of Polish were asked to provide phonologically similar words to 80 nonwords. The study demonstrates that the uncovered patterns of phonological similarity (segment substitutions, deletions and additions, the use of bigrams, trigrams and quadrigrams, noncontiguous sounds and segment metathesis) go beyond the commonly employed concept of neighbourhood density and point to the need to revise the current approaches to phonological similarity of words. It is argued that the experimental results can be attributed to the considerably more complex phonotactic and morphological structure of Polish than English.
We consider a four-level system with two subsystems coupled by weak interaction. The system is in thermal equilibrium. The thermodynamics of the system, namely internal energy, free energy, entropy and heat capacity, are evaluated using the canonical density matrix by two methods. First by Kronecker product method and later by treating the subsystems separately and then adding the evaluated thermodynamic properties of each subsystem. It is discovered that both methods yield the same result, the results obey the laws of thermodynamics and are the same as earlier obtained results. The results also show that each level of the subsystems introduces a new degree of freedom and increases the entropy of the entire system. We also found that the four-level system predicts a linear relationship between heat capacity and temperature at very low temperatures just as in metals. Our numerical results show the same trend.
Two species of Amphipoda (Hyperiidae), Themisto libellula (Mandt, 1822) and Themisto abyssorum (Boeck, 1870), were collected with the use of a WP-2 net from the area between Nordkapp and Spitsbergen (73° to 78° N) in July of 1993,1996,1997 and 1998. Densities ranged from 6 to 992 ind. 100 m-3 (T. abyssorum) and from 8 to 448 ind. 100 m-3 (r. libellula) and respective total biomass of T. abyssorum from 65.6 to 81.2 mg d.w. 100 m-3 and T. libellula from 59.9 to 131.5 mg d.w. 100 m-3.
Species composition and density of Gastrotricha in bottom sediments were studied, on an annual basis, in the littoral of the mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno (Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland). The number of species from spring to autumn remained on the same level (from 24 in spring to 22 in autumn), but in winter in littoral of the lake there were recorded only 8 species. Species diversity expressed by the Shannon index, in spring, summer and autumn was high and amounted 2.86; 2.69 and 2.77 respectively. In winter the value of the index was significantly lower and amounted 1.80. In individual seasons the mean density of Gastrotricha valued from 50 103 indiv. m-2 during winter to 1238 103 indiv. m-2 in spring. The density of Gastrotricha in spring was more than 24 times higher than that winter. There were no significant differences in species diversity Gastrotricha from spring to autumn, although the peak abundance was recorded in the spring. It is necessary to add, that the density of Gastrotricha during the spring peak was one order of magnitude higher from that in summer and autumn. The similarity of the fauna found in winter to the fauna occurring in other seasons, is significantly low, ranging from 24 to 27%. Seasonal changes in amount and diversity of the gastrotrich fauna are probably the result of temperature changes and food availability.
The research was carried out on species diversity, density and similarity of Gastrotricha living on two species of macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. in a mesotrophic lake. Gastrotricha occurring on the studied macrophytes were represented by 23 species (21 on M. spicatum L. and 22 on E. canadensis Michx.). Species diversity (expressed by the Shannon index) for the Gastrotricha occurring on the two studied species of macrophytes amounted to 2.70 for M. spicatum L. and 2.81 for E. canadensis Michx., what suggests equal distribution of the gastrotrich species revealed in the studied species of macrophytes. The definite dominants inhabiting the two species of macrophytes were: Heterolepidoderma macrops Kisielewski, 1981, Heterolepidoderma ocellatum (Mečnikow, 1865), Lepidoderma squamata (Dujardin, 1841) and Aspidiophorus squamulosus Roszczak, 1936, and their inclusive percentage participation in the whole gastrotrich fauna for M. spicatum L. and E. canadensis Michx. was 41.8 and 40.3% respectively. The domination structure of the gastrotrich fauna of the two species of macrophytes was similar for each gastrotrich species (G-test, for all p > 0.05). Average density of Gastrotricha inhabiting M. spicatum L. amounted to 588.0 10³ indiv. m-2, and density of Gastrotricha occurring on E. canadensis Michx. amounted to 670.0 10³ indiv. m-2. Statistic analysis based on the Mann-Whitney test showed that differences of the gastrotrich densi-ty on the studied species of macrophytes: M. spicatum L. and E. canadensis Michx. (Z = -1.9282; p = 0.05) are statistically insignificant.
IR spectroscopy, density and ultrasonic velocity measurements have been carried out for aluminum lithium phosphate glasses with and without MoO3. The observed changes in the FTIR spectra of the glasses were related to the modifier/former role of molybdenum ions. The results revealed that the density increases with increasing MoO<sub>3</sub> content, which was attributed to the increase in the compactness and packing of the glass network. The ultrasonic data were analyzed in terms of creation of new bonds of MoO<sub>3</sub> attached to phosphate units. The new bonds increased the average crosslink density and the number of network bonds per unit volume along with a strengthening of the different modes of vibrations which in its turn increased the ultrasonic velocity, the rigidity and hence the elastic moduli of the glasses.
The process of enrichment in a jig has usually been described and analysed using particle density as a separation feature. However, a degree of particle loosening in the jig bed is affected by, inter alia, the terminal particle free settling velocity which in turn is affected by the size, density and shape of a particle. Therefore, the terminal particle settling velocity clearly characterises the feed transferred to a jig for the enrichment process. Taking the comprehensive particle geometric (particle size and shape) and physical properties (particle density) into account comes down to the calculation of the terminal particle settling velocity. The terminal particle settling velocity is therefore a complex separation feature which comprises three basic particle features (particle density, size and shape). This paper compares the effects of enrichment of coal fines in a jig, for two cases: when the commonly applied particle density is separation feature and for the particle settling velocity. Particle settling velocities were calculated in the selected three particle size fractions: –3.15+2.00, –10.00+8.00 and –20.00+16.00 mm based on the industrial testing of a jig for coal fines and detailed laboratory tests consisting in determining particle density, projective diameter and volume and dynamic particle shape coefficient. The calculated and drawn partition curves for two variants, i.e. when particle density and particle settling velocity were taken into account as the separation argument in selected particle size fractions, allowed to calculate and compare separation precision indicator. With the use of a statistical test, the assumption on the independence of random variables of the distribution of components included in the distribution of the particle settling velocity as a separation feature during enrichment in a jig was verified.
Work is being carried out on possibilities of limiting the content of mercury in hard coal products by gravity concentration of run-of-mine coal in the Branch of the Institute of Mechanized Construction and Rock Mining in Katowice and on the Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. Under domestic industrial conditions, gravity concentration is carried out with heavy medium liquids and in jigs. Preliminary - pilot studies have shown the possibility of mercury removal also by using the dry deshaling method involving vibratory air separators. Mercury is mainly found in the pyrite and the rubble formed by the mineral carbon, but also in the organic carbon. Some of it is located in layers of coal roof fields, which in the course of their exploitation go to coal. The mercury removal efficiency during the gravity concentration process will depend on the decomposition of the listed components in the density fractions. The paper presents the results of investigations of total mercury and total sulphur content in the separated coal fractions from four mines. These contents were determined in fractions: –1.5 g/cm3 (conventionally clean coal – concentrate), 1.5–1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally middlings) and +1.8 g/cm3 (conventionally rock – waste). The results are summarized in Tables 3–5 and in Charts 1–4. Conversely, graphs 5-8 show the relationship between mercury content and total sulphur content in the tested coal samples. The study, which can be called a preliminary analysis of the susceptibility of the coals to gravity concentration, showed that the dry deshaling method on the vibratory air separators would allow significant amounts of mercury accumulated in the middlings and waste fractions to be removed.
The Halbach array structure rotor of the aero motor can satisfy the requirements of high power density and high air-gap flux for aeronautical motors. The size parameters of the rotor are determined by the power rating of the motor based on an analytic method. Producing a Halbach array structure is difficult. Comparison and analysis of the structure of the aero motor showthat the overall structure of the rotor adopts a three-axial-section classic Halbach-array hollow structure, and the rotor magnetic steel adopts a discrete structure of 4 blocks per pole and a single 45◦ magnetisation mode, which reduces the processing difficulty of the rotor magnetic steel. The finite element method was used to analyse the magnetic flux density distribution of the aeronautical motor under various working conditions. The results show that the motor can produce uniform air-gap flux density at various working conditions and present good sinusoidal periodicity. Furthermore, the axial segment did not produce obvious magnetic flux leakage. Finally, considering the eddy current loss of the stator under the rated power-generation condition with high-frequency magnetic field, we conducted coupling analysis of electromagnetic and heat flows to verify that the thermal characteristics of the rotor magnetic steel material could meet the requirements for the aero motor.
The article describes the idea of a compact city, due to the needs and capabilities of contemporary Polish cities, with an emphasis on the Silesia region. Special attention has been paid to the possibility of increasing the cities’ density and several examples have been shown to present the possibilities of densifying the cities with new housing investments. Also, the article presents the studies that indicate the capacity for the internal development of selected Silesian cities: Katowice and Gliwice. The article ends with the recommendations for cities to become more compact.
Al-CuO is a thermite material exhibiting the exothermic reaction only when aluminum melts. For wide spread of its application, the reaction temperature needs to be reduced in addition to the enhancement of total reaction energy. In the present study, a thermite nanocomposite with a large contact area between Al and CuO was fabricated in order to lower the exothermic reaction temperature and to improve the reactivity. A cryomilling process was performed to achieve the nanostructure, and the effect of composition on the microstructure and its reactivity was studied in detail. The microstructure was characterized using SEM and XRD, and the thermal property was analyzed using DSC. The results show that as the molar ratio between Al and CuO varies, the fraction of uniform nanocomposite structure was changed affecting the exothermic reaction characteristics.
Bayesian VAR (BVAR) models offer a practical solution to the parameter proliferation concerns as they allow to introduce a priori information on seasonality and persistence of inflation in a multivariate framework. We investigate alternative prior specifications in the case of time series with a clear seasonal pattern. In the empirical part we forecast the monthly headline inflation in the Polish economy over the period 2011‒2014 employing two popular BVAR frameworks: a steady-state reduced-form BVAR and just-identified structural BVAR model. To evaluate the forecast performance we use the pseudo real-time vintages of timely information from consumer and financial markets. We compare different models in terms of both point and density forecasts. Using formal testing procedure for density-based scores we provide the empirical evidence of superiority of the steady-state BVAR specifications with tight seasonal priors.
The paper presents results of an analysis of material density distribution in stampings press-moulded in metal dies from raw refractory materials based on alumina-magnesia-carbon aggregate. The stampings, fabricated on LAEIS HPF 1250 pressing machine, are blanks from which refractory precast shapes are manufactured by means of drying and firing. Samples for material density evaluation were cut out from test stampings with the use of diamond-reinforced disc. Density of the material was determined in thirteen layers of stampings denoted with letters A through M.
The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.
The two chosen estates, Garnizon and Wiszace Ogrody have evolved during the last decade or so in Gdańsk. Both developed with the idea of balanced functionality and New Urbanism despite very diff erent locations. The aim was to combine apartment buildings with shops, other services, hotels, offi ce buildings and cultural venues. Numerous interesting and inviting public spaces were also high on the agenda. It was intended to create an interesting, multifunctional space, to maximise the use of the space throughout the day, also making it eco friendly by minimising the use of cars. That`s how an interesting, beautifull space impacts the energy. The centrally located Garnizon has been quite successful, whereas the more peripherally placed Wiszące Ogrody has not quite succeeded due to fi nancial restrictions and is mainly a housing estate at the moment. The hope is that it will grow into a similar entity with new development and helped by the new rail link.
Sound propagation from the vehicles moving on the city roundabout, with taking into account the wind is investigated. Solution of the problem for one moving sound source is found by means of the integral Fourier transforms extended over space variables and time. Inverse transforms are calculated approximately, using a stationary phase method and iterative technique. The solution for a general problem is obtained as a superposition of many partial solutions. The numerical analysis of noise characteristics is performed for the three-way Korfanty roundabout case in Łódź.
The current hypotheses of water structure and influence of the magnetic field on the change in its structure have been analyzed. The hypotheses of the feasibility of using high-frequency electromagnetic fields to enhance their impact on the water structure and the stability of this process have been formulated. Experimental studies on using water treated in high-frequency electromagnetic fields for eco-concrete production have been carried out.
The purpose of this work is to find a correlation for heat transfer to walls in a 1296 t/h supercritical circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The effect of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient in a long active heat transfer surface was discussed, excluding the radiation component. Experiments for four different unit loads (i.e. 100% MCR, 80% MCR, 60% MCR and 40% MCR) were conducted at a constant excess air ratio and high level of bed pressure (ca. 6 kPa) in each test run. The empirical correlation of the heat transfer coefficient in a large-scale CFB boiler was mainly determined by two key operating parameters, suspension density and bed temperature. Furthermore, data processing was used in order to develop empirical correlation ranges between 3.05 to 5.35 m·s-1 for gas superficial velocity, 0.25 to 0.51 for the ratio of the secondary to the primary air, 1028 to 1137K for bed temperature inside the furnace chamber of a commercial CFB boiler, and 1.20 to 553 kg·m-3 for suspension density. The suspension density was specified on the base of pressure measurements inside the boiler’s combustion chamber using pressure sensors. Pressure measurements were collected at the measuring ports situated on the front wall of the combustion chamber. The obtained correlation of the heat transfer coefficient is in agreement with the data obtained from typical industrial CFB boilers.
The problem of estimation of the long-term environmental noise hazard indicators and their uncertainty is presented in the present paper. The type A standard uncertainty is defined by the standard deviation of the mean. The rules given in the ISO/IEC Guide 98 are used in the calculations. It is usually determined by means of the classic variance estimators, under the following assumptions: the normality of measurements results, adequate sample size, lack of correlation between elements of the sample and observation equivalence. However, such assumptions in relation to the acoustic measurements are rather questionable. This is the reason why the authors indicated the necessity of implementation of non-classical statistical solutions. An estimation idea of seeking density function of long-term noise indicators distribution by the kernel density estimation, bootstrap method and Bayesian inference have been formulated. These methods do not generate limitations for form and properties of analyzed statistics. The theoretical basis of the proposed methods is presented in this paper as well as an example of calculation process of expected value and variance of long-term noise indicators LDEN and LN. The illustration of indicated solutions and their usefulness analysis were constant due to monitoring results of traffic noise recorded in Cracow, Poland.
Five new derivatives of 4,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)pyrimidine (DTP) were designed by structural modification with the aim to tune the electro-optical and charge transfer properties. The effect of oligocene and oligocenothiophene incorporation/substitution was investigated on various properties of interests. The smaller hole reorganization energy revealed that compounds 1-5 might be good hole transfer contenders. The smaller hole reorganization energy of newly designed five DTP derivatives than the pentacene showed that prior compounds might be good/comparable hole transfer materials than/to that of pentacene. The computed electron reorganization energy of DTP derivatives 1-5 are 124, 185, 93, 95 and 189 meV smaller than the meridional-tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (mer-Alq3) illuminating that electron mobility of these derivatives might be better/comparable than/to referenced compound.
In this study, two different compositions of submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and micron-structured chromium (4.66 μm) powders were mixed to fabricate Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys by vacuum hot-press sintering. The research imposed various hot-press sintering pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while the sintering temperature maintained at 1250°C for 1 h. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of the hot-press sintered Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were 1250°C at 50 MPa for 1 h. Also, the relative density reached 99.94%, the closed porosity decreased to 0.04% and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increased to 81.90 HRA and 448.53 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced to 1.58 × 104 S·cm–1. However, the grain growth generated during the high-temperature and high-pressure of the hot-press sintering process resulted in the grain coarsening phenomenon of the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys after 1250°C hot-press sintering at 50 MPa for 1 h. In addition, the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were fabricated with the submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (588 nm) powders showed more effective compaction than the micron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (4.66 μm) powders did. The closed porosity decreases to 0.02% and the hardness values increase to 83.23 HRA. However, the agglomeration phenomenon of the Cr phase and brittleness of the TiCr2 Laves phases easily led to a slight decrease in TRS (400.54 MPa).
Among the various thin film coating techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has features of good controllability of the thickness, excellent step-coverage in 3-dimensional object even in the sub-nm thickness range at the relatively low deposition temperature. In this study, SnO2 thin films were grown by ALD in the variation of substrate temperatures from 150 to 250°C. Even such a low temperature may influence on the growth kinetics of the ALD reaction and thus the physical characteristics of thin films, such as crystallinity, film density and optical band gap, etc. We observed the decrease of the growth rate with increasing substrate temperature, at the same time, the density of the film was decreased with increasing temperature. Steric hindrance effect of the precursor molecule was attributed to the inverse relationship of the growth temperature and growth rate as well as the film density. Optical indirect band gap energy (~3.6 eV) of the ALD-grown amorphous SnO2 films grown at 150°C was similar with that of the literature value, while slightly lower band gap energy (~3.4 eV) was acquired at the films grown at higher temperature.
The Mn-Zn ferrite powders prepared by high energy ball milling were heat-treated, subsequently compacted and sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Based on the observation of microstructure, the characteristics of samples after SPS were investigated and compared with ones after conventional sintering. The size of initial powders was approximately 650 nm and decreased to 230 nm after milling at 300 rpm for 3 h. After heat treatment at 973K for 1h, the milled powders became larger to approximately 550 nm in size again and the peaks of Mn2O3 disappeared in XRD patterns. In the samples after SPS, the Fe2O3 and MnZnFe2O4 phases decomposed at the higher temperatures than 1173K and 1373K, respectively, while only MnZnFe2O4 phase was detected in the samples conventionally sintered at 1273~1673K. As the sintering temperature increased, the relative density after SPS increased more quickly than that after conventional sintering. In particular, it reached approximately 99% after SPS at 1473K.