Insufficient due planning policy in Poland is subject to widespread and justified criticism. This applies to all levels of spatial management. Legal instruments governing spatial planning in Poland are passive - setting out only the legal framework corresponding to a particular area. They regulate what might be developed within its boundaries, however, they do not specify how it is to be accomplished. Therefore, there is a need to develop an integrated spatial development planning, in which also investors and/or stakeholders would be involved. Apart from answering to the question of what is going to be developed, it will also provide a very comprehensive and flexible implementation strategy having regard to different timelines and local amenities (facilities). This paper also brings an example showing how the spatial planning strategy was conducted for the development of the "Fort Bema" housing estates in the Warsaw district of Bemowo. It highlights the relevance of the planning phase for the subsequent in-use (operating) phase.
The model concept, as presented in this paper, is an original solution created by the author, and can be used as a proposal to build an innovative mechanism to increase the effectiveness of programming and implementation of the development policy, and improve the quality of functioning of a building research institute. The development management system included in this model is a set of actions targeting at the effective use of human and tangible resources, undertaken in a coordinated manner and leading to the achievement of previously established objectives. The market activity of building research institutes is directly or indirectly involved in construction projects, which translates into market mechanisms, such as innovation and competitiveness. In addition, it indicates the participation of a building research institute in the engineering of construction projects as a key to entrepreneurship and implementations.
In the text, a polemic is undertaken against the model of the child expected in Polish institutions of early childhood education, and which appropriates the rationalities producing social practices. The source of this model is in the logic of standardization whose cognitive and effects on identity are criticized by the author. Identifying the sources of validation of the practices normalizing some children and stigmatizing others, who do not meet the requirements of the cognitively rigid and morally trivialized standards, the text points to developmental psychology as a discipline which potentially triggers this form of oppression. In conclusion, the author describes briefly a number of examples of educational solutions in which an attempt has been made to move beyond the discourse of standardized quality in child education.
The aim of the article is to diagnose the regional diversification of development in the axiological context. The starting point in this analysis is the term: development. This category is understood in a multidimensional manner. Presented in this paper conceptual model of development allows to distinguish three levels of analysis of the development process: material, social and cultural. Identification of the axiological phenomenon of the diversification of regional development in this research is ultimately served by the systematization tool – typology, introducing the division into the culture of honour, achievements and joy.
The presented paper encompasses four threads of deliberation that show the essence, cognitive value and utility of the concept of creative cities in the shaping of the future of contemporary cities. These threads are: creative development, a model of a creative city, preconditions of a creative city, and the use of a creative city as a vehicle of development.
The article aims at presenting the philosophy and model of the development vehicle to be understood as a new concept and tool to investigate and program local and regional development processes. The practical issues covered by the article include the identification and discovery of development vehicles, the elements of which can be observed in Polish metropolitan areas and agglomerations.
The paper indicates the signifi cance of the development policy territorialization for an enhancing competitiveness of cities and regions. The characteristics of such a policy allow revealing of the nature of territorial instruments. The authors, referring to their consulting practice and the research work done for the Ministry of Development, frame their recommendations. Those recommendations constitute the guidelines for amendment of territorial instruments in the context of National Regional Development Strategy actualization.
The contemporary world is marked by clear disproportions in terms of living, working and wage. This problem also applies to Poland, including the layout designated by cities. The quantitative analysis carried out proves that the identified disproportions in the development potential have a relatively permanent character, which gives them structural attribute. In this context, the desirable effectiveness of development policy (subordinate to the vision and funds of EU cohesion policy) becomes highly questionable. Today’s economic inclusion is a serious challenge to the failure of recognized development policies. The shaping of the socio-economic order of the state requires a new look at local development, starting from a reliable diagnosis, part of which is this study, to bold and real visions.
The transformation of the former docks in Dublin was one of the major urban regeneration projects in Ireland, which was built during the recent economic boom. Since the start of the project in the nineties, more than six thousand apartments have been built in the area. The construction of the apartments allowed for the diversifi cation of the character of this district into a living quarter. Initially the Docklands were considered as an offi ce district that would serve the Ireland’s service-based economy. New projects also allowed for the development of housing in a close proximity to existing city centre, although it did not happen not without avoiding the gentrifi cation and social polarization of this area. The key role in the process was played by the operator – the urban development agency (Dublin Docklands Development Authority). It acted both as a strategic landowner and the coordinator of the development. The agency was responsible for the delivery of the infrastructure and the sale of the land. The actions of the operator included setting up the of the housing standards, requirements for the development of the infrastructure, both social and technical and public transportation systems. In the hindsight, the agency was praised for the management of the development of such large site. On the other hand, the lack of procedural oversight and a few dubious fi nancial decisions, as well as the other eff ects of the neoliberal policies, such as gentrification, fi nally lower the assessment of DDDA efficiency in that matter. The article summarizes the main aims and achievements of the DDDA’s development policy and its assessment from the long-term perspective of two decades of transformation. This includes the eff ects of the actions in the aftermath of the fi nancial crisis. Such perspective allows to highlight the various stages of the development of the agency and to examine the efficiency and efficacy of these actions.
For a long time creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship have been at the heart of studies on economic growth of regions and cities. In the paper the three notions are scrutinised together to propose conceptual approach to establishing research and development pathways, based upon three-stage identification of: research problems, project patterns and relational mechanisms. The paper is concluded with a 63 Box – the approach helping to navigate throughout project preparation phase.
Since the 1980s, seaport cities have been characterized by the spatiotemporal concurrence of highly modern terminals away from the city and derelict and/or sub-optimally used inner city harbours and waterfront sites. The post-Fordist city disintegrated into a polycentric fragmented structure with aggravated social confl icts between older residential areas of dockers and requirements for modern expensive waterfront condominiums. The cranes of the shipbuilders’ yards, which used to be a characteristic feature of the city silhouette and a symbol for dynamic port economies, have been dismantled, the land left derelict and contaminated. The formerly close functional and spatial relationship of port and city was relaxed from the end of the 1960s onwards and off ered opportunities for transformations. In this article different approaches for redevelopment und revitalization are discussed.
The subject of the study are strategies for the development of 9 cities, which are among the strongest centres outside the current capitals of regions (in Polish: voivodeships) in the least-developed Polish regions. These cities can give the chance to activate their surroundings. Good strategies that increase the competitiveness of cities and stimulate development can contribute to this. The aim of the research was to fi nd answers to the questions whether and to what extent the studied strategies: (1) are in line with the definition and methodology of strategic planning; (2) recognize and use specific combinations of developmental factors; (3) can contribute to the development of their surroundings. The research method involved the analysis of the strategic plans in the light of the above questions. The strategies studied are not fully in line with the strategy defi nition. They contain errors and methodological flaws commonly encountered in other strategies. They use the specificity of developmental factors, but without conscious, methodical recognition of their combinations and without exposing them. The author signals methodical problems specific to the strategic planning in territorial units and makes suggestions for planning practice.
Urban regeneration is driven by many different engines. These engines, however, in some circumstances may appear to turn to either a success or failure factor. In this context, it is appropriate to analyse how factors that serve the regeneration process are affected by embedding research in a particular paradigm set by the theories of so called “regional development”. The choice of these concepts analysed in the article was the result of literature review. The article consists of four parts. The first part defines the development factors and shows how the concentration of negative phenomena in degraded areas may inhibit their optimal use in the context of the city as a whole. Two subsequent chapters analyse how major theories of regional development picture external and internal factors that influence the development of a specific territory. Then, in the summary the author discusses, how main urban and regional development theories reflect the rationale for mitigating barriers in using local development factors as real driving forces of urban regeneration.
In 1994-2000 Galicia region was among the weakest regions with a GDP per capita below the median of the European countries, that gained a strong increase in GDP in subsequent years. Thus, the aim of the article is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of Galicia’s development path as well as to indicate barriers limiting further development. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. The findings show that there was no shock that could become a direct cause for a change in the innovation process model of Galicia. The success of the transformation could be seen in attracting automotive and shipbuilding industries decades ago and the creation of a strong knowledge base. The case study of Galicia shows that even with a diffi cult history and only a few pillars of the economy, it is possible to grow faster than other regions in Europe.
The study presents a change of innovation model in the highly developed region of the European Union Friuli Venezia Giulia in Italy. The paper presents the innovation system and the outline of the region’s economic history, as well as the factors that preceded the change in innovation model, the direct causes of the change, and the impact of institutional factors as well as the development barriers. The analyzes were based on interviews with 14 representatives of regional and local authorities, innovation and entrepreneurship support institutions, universities, R&D units and a cluster from the region, as well as statistical data and source material.
This chapter provides a quantitative analysis to identify weak regions that have changed the innovation model. The analysis was carried out at the beginning of the project, in 2015, when only data on GDP per capita for the EU regions was available until 2011. It was designed to identify regions that have changed the innovation model for their in-depth qualitative research, that is to prepare case studies. To indicate the development paths of European regions, a comparative analysis of means was prepared. Innovation models and their change were indicated by clusters analysis. In addition, an econometric analysis of growth factors in the EU regions covering data on GDP per capita in the EU regions in 2014 was carried out in 2017.
The purpose of the chapter is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship development path as well as to indicate barriers limiting further development. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. The conclusions may be of interest to both researchers of the path dependency concept, and representatives of institutions involved in formulation and implementation of regional policy.
The study presents a change in the innovation model and a change of development path towards new industries and modernization of traditional industries in the Pomeranian Voivodship. The characteristics of the region and the characteristics of the regional innovation system based on statistical data, existing research, analysis and interviews with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientists and entrepreneurs of the voivodship were presented. The factors that preceded the change of the innovation model and direct causes of change were identifi ed aa well as the impact of institutional factors and the barriers to the development of the voivodship.
The paper presents the history of the development path of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship. The aim of the study was to identify factors conducive to and restrict regional transformation in Warmia and Mazury and to verify the development path of the voivodeship. According to the study, the factors that positively infl uenced the development of the region in the recent period were, among others: EU funds and natural resources that form the basis of a regional economy. The factors that inhibit the development of the region include, among other:. lack of trust, intensifi cation of competition and low transport accessibility of the voivodeship.
The aim of the paper is to draw attention to risks and challenges faced by the national grid infrastructure both in the area of transmission and distribution. The study presents the characteristics of the network grid in the area of transmission and distribution. The threats concerning the transmission and distribution infrastructure were also discussed. Both the national transmission and the distribution grids are adapted to presently occurring typical conditions of the demand on electricity and to the execution of internal tasks in normal states, but they may pose a potential threat to the security of the energy supplies. In the context of the forecasted future growth of the electricity demand, the insufficient capacity of the National Power System in domestic sources and sources available through interconnections, the uneven distribution of sources and customers with the lack of adequate grid transmission capacity, the necessity to improve the quality and reliability of energy supply to end users and to intensively develop renewable energy sources, the current grid infrastructure in the area of transmission and distribution will be insufficient. It will be necessary to expand and modernize the 400 and 220 kV transmission grid, the 110 kV distribution grid, in large urban agglomerations in particular, the MV distribution grid in rural areas in particular, and to implement investments aimed at increasing the export and import capacities of the National Power System. The paper presents challenges faced by transmission and distribution system operators. They mainly concern the field of investments and the area related to the preparation and implementation of investments in the grid. These challenges result from national legislation which is inappropriate and imposes many legal and administrative barriers substantially limiting the speed and effectiveness of the investment process.
Spatial and time diversity of housing construction in Poland. Residential housing construction, as one of the most important elements of spatial development, a factor decisive for living conditions of residents, is the object of interest not only of architects, planners or local and state authorities, but increasingly also of geographers, who mainly analyze these issues in a spatial context. The article analyzes the development of construction in post-war Poland in three periods: real socialism, the transformation period and the last decade. The subject of the analysis is the number of completed dwellings/flats in total, by location (city, village) and by investors (housing cooperatives, developers, private constructors and others).
This study shows the results of the investigation of the strength performance, and residual strength of a single component inorganic binder system Cast Clean S27®. The study was conducted using three different foundry sand sources in South Africa. Sample A is an alluvial coastal sample, sample B is an alluvial riverbed sample and Sample C is a blasted sample from a consolidated quartzite rock. The binder was also cured using three different curing mechanisms. The aim of the investigation was to determine the variation of strength performance and residual strength between the different South African sand sources based upon the physical and chemical properties of the sand sources. The moulding sand was prepared using three possible curing mechanisms which are carbon dioxide curing, ester curing and heat curing. The strength measurements were determined by bending strength. Sample A and sample C sand had good strength development. Sample B sand had inferior strength development and excellent high temperature residual strength. The study showed that the single component inorganic binders have good strength development and low residual strength. The silica sand properties have major contributing factors on both strength development and residual strength. The degree of influence of silica sand properties on strength performance and residual strength is dependent on the time of curing and method of curing.
Socio-economic development as well as factors and determinants of development. The scientific language, as well as everyday and literary language, is in constant development. The effect of this development is the multiplication of flavored notions and concepts leading to many misunderstandings and ambiguities, which should not happen in the scientific language. The presented texts should be written in a language that is clear, simple, logical, unambiguous and understandable, and their interpretation should not cause problems. This article presents remarks concerning the interpretation of such basic notions of socio-economic sciences as socio-economic development, economic growth and factors and conditions of development, quite freely used in scientific texts. It also contains the correct interpretation of these notions, especially in reference to the language of socio-economic geography, regional economics and socio-economic and spatial development and planning. Only an unambiguously interpreted text can be a platform for mutual understanding, basis for scientific discussion and the way to the the real development of science.
Poland is now faced with the task of developing a long-term energy policy for decades to come, a strategy capable of reconciling the security of power supplies as well as effective economic processes, ensuring adequate standards of environmental protection. The process in which fossil fuels are converted into energy carriers of choice is accompanied by the emission of various gas substances which escape into the environment. Later on, those substances accumulate in the atmosphere as greenhouse gases affecting the Earth’s radiation balance – the greenhouse effect. Upsetting the balance between emission levels of those gases and the capacity to convert them in the atmosphere is the reason for climate changes. Sustainable development indices constitute a monitoring tool which makes it possible to create a statistical image of a country from the perspective of a new development paradigm. The most important feature of this index is the capability of comparing values, enabling to determine the position of a given object with reference to other objects. The article analyses 8 indexes of sustainable development in terms of using biomass for power generation purposes. The analysis was performed to include three social order indices, two economic indices and one environmental order index. It was concluded that the use of biomass in power generation can reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses significantly at several stages: the emission can be eliminated from the biological process of biomass conversion, storage and it can also be reduced during transportation.