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Abstract

The results from a hydrological monitoring program of Breelva basin (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) have been analysed to improve the understanding of the Werenskiöld Glacier system’s functioning in the High Arctic. Hydrographs of a 44 km 2 river basin (27 km 2 of which was covered by a glacier) were analysed for the period 2007–2012. Seasonal discharge fluctuations were linked to glacier ablation and meteorological parameters, including atmospheric circulation types. A dichotomy was found in the discharge peaks generation during the hydrologically active season, with the main role played by snow and ice melt events during its first part and the rainfall regime dominating its second part. Foehn type strong winds played a significant role in the generation of ablation type floods ( e.g. in August 2011). A simple classification of the runoff regime was applied to the examined six−year period, resulting in the identification of its three types: the ablation type (dominant in 2007 and 2009), the rainfall type (in the years 2011–2012), and the mixed type (during 2008 and 2010). According to publications the river flow season in Spitsbergen begins in June and end with freeze−up in September or at the beginning of October. Recently, this season for Breelva tend to be extended with the mid−May onset and end in the second part of October. A multiannual trend was noted that reflects a growing importance of rainfalls, especially in September. Rainfall waters play a more distinct role in outflow from the Breelva catchment recently.
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Abstract

The data set of the Warta discharges in Poznań (Poland) is one of the largest in the world as the daily observations of river stages have been conducted without interruptions since January, 1st, 1822. The Poznań measurement profile is situated in the 243.6 km and closes the catchment area of approximately 25 thousand square kilometers. The data used as the input in the paper were daily values of the Warta discharges in Poznań in the years 1822-2012. The climate in Poznań, a city situated in the centre of the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region, is relatively stable (Miler et al. 2005). Also the Warta River runoff shows considerable stability, especially in terms of mean annual values. Short-term trends are random in character. It was found that the Jeziorsko reservoir (total storage volume of 203 000 000 m3, officially put to use on September, 9th, 1987) significantly reduced daily variability of the flows and reduced peak discharge of the flood wave in the summer of 1997 on the Warta River at Poznań. The calculated periodogram for mean annual discharges of the Warta River in Poznań shows that there are main periodicities of ca. 10 year lengths. The research of the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (WIOŚ) in Poznań shows a gradual improvement of water quality in the Warta River in Poznań.
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