The role of the hard coal mining sector in ensuring energy security of the country has been presented in the paper. An analysis of its current status was made based on the results obtained by the sector in 2017. Moreover, the determinants which are the precondition for further sustainable and efficient operation in the years to come have been defined.
The study aimed to apply the protection from damage to engineering facilities located near a planned underwater aggregate extraction. The analysis was conducted in compliance with mining regulations and expert opinions. The study also aimed to assess the precision and correctness of the extraction, due to economic aspects. To reach the goals, in-situ research of the mining area was conducted, with the help of an advanced bathymetric device, based on the USV methodology. The instrument – named by the author as Smart-Sonar-Boat – was especially designed for underwater surveys in open-pit aggregate mines. The study analyzed the “Dwory” open-pit mine, located in southern Poland in the city of Oświęcim. The bathymetric results obtained contributed to improving the observation of changes in the bottom during the extraction. The applied USV method allowed for conducting the reliable evaluation of the mining work.
Volatility is one of the most characteristic features in the all market types. In the raw material market, including the bituminous coal market, volatility is visible in the supply and demand variations, in consequence in the prices fluctuations. Market actors usually having opposite interests, for example buy low, sell high, are vitally interested in identifying the causes of these fluctuations. Some of the factors causing the market fluctuations are quite common, others are more complicated because of circumstances complexity. This article attempts to examine the relationships between bituminous coal fines prices and the economic situation. Given the complexity of the issue, the research area has been narrowed down – territorially to Poland and temporarily – to the present decade. The average prices of coal fines in Poland are presented by the Industrial Development Agency (Agencję Rozwoju Przemysłu SA) in the form of two indices: PSCMI 1 and PSCMI 2. Both indices are calculated based on the prices of pattern bituminous coal, produced by domestic manufacturers and sold on domestic markets, the energy and heat market respectively. Statistical methods, because of their quantitative nature, are important in identifying the correlations between the coal fines prices and economic conditions. Therefore, the article presents examples of relatively strong linear correlations between the PSCMI 1 and/or PSCMI 2 and some indicators of the economic situation.