In recent years, changes have been made in the structure of primary energy use in the European Union In addition, a reduction in the use of primary energy has also been observed. According to the forecasts of the International Energy Agency, the European energy market will be subject to further changes in the perspective of 2040. These may include the reduction of the energy consumption and the change in the structure of the energy balance as a result pro-ecological activities. Natural gas will be the only fossil energy carrier whose role in covering the energy demand will not change. Along with the changes taking place in the European energy market, global changes can also be observed. The EU Member States will continue to strive to diversify natural gas supplies. One of the main elements of diversification of natural gas supplies is the use of LNG regasification terminals. The reasons for that include the increasing production of natural gas, particularly in the case of unconventional deposits, the ongoing development of liquefaction terminals, and, as a consequence, an increase in the LNG supply in the global market. The article presents the utilization of regasification terminals in the EU Member States and plans for the development of LNG terminals. Europe has the opportunity to import natural gas through LNG terminals. However, until now, these have been used to a limited extent. This may indicate that in addition to diversification tasks, terminals can act as a safeguard against interruptions in gas supplies.
The large variability and unpredictability of energy production from photovoltaic power microinstallations results from the dependence on the current weather conditions. These conditions depend on a number of factors and are variable over the time. Despite this specificity, photovoltaic micro-installations are becoming more and more popular in the world and in Poland. This is mainly due to the fact that the generation of energy from renewable sources has numerous advantages, the energy is free, renewable in time and ecological, and its production on its own gives partial independence from energy supplies from the power grid. In addition, the observed significant prices decrease of solar modules has further accelerated the development of the use of this energy source. Concern for this method of energy production among households has increased significantly in Poland after introducing the prosumer in the legal framework and the use of administrative and financial support. The implemented prosumer mechanisms allowed, for example, the net balancing of the energy consumed and produced by the micro-installation through storage in the power grid. The article describes the problem of balancing sources using solar energy, based on micro-installation used in the household (the so-called prosumer installation). The conducted analyses compared the load profile of a typical household and the energy generation profile from a photovoltaic installation, determining the real balancing formation level of such a system.
Energy from different sources is fundamental to the economy of each country. Bearing in mind the limited reserves of non-renewable energy sources and the fact that their production from new deposits is becoming less economically viable, attention is paid to alternative energy sources, particularly those that are readily available or require no substantial financial investment. One possible solution may be to generate hydrogen, which will then be used for heat (energy) production using other methods. At the same time, these processes will be characterized by low emission levels compared to conventional energy sources. In recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on the use of clean energy from renewable sources. New, more technically and economically efficient technologies are being developed. The energy use worldwide comes mostly from fossil fuel processing. It can be observed that the share of RES in global production is growing every year. At the end of the 1990s, the share of renewable energy sources was at 6–7%. Global trends indicate the increasing demand for renewable energy due to its form. Global hydrogen resources are practically inexhaustible, but the problem is its availability in molecular form. The article analyzed the use of hydrogen as a fuel. The basic problem is the inexpensive and easy extraction of hydrogen from its compounds; attention has been paid to water, which can easily be electrolytically decomposed to produce oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen generated by electrolysis can be stored, but due to its physicochemical properties, it is a costly process; therefore, a decision was made that it is better to store it with natural gas or use it for further reaction. In addition, hydrogen can be used as a substrate for binding and converting the increasingly problematic carbon dioxide, thus reducing its content in the atmosphere.
The article is focused onthe energetical balance of a technical system for the conversion of crushed tyres by pyrolysis. Process temperatures were set in the range from 500 to 650°C. Mass input of the material was 30 kg per hour. The aim of the article is to answer the following questions as regards the individual products: Under which process conditions can the highest quality of the individual products related to energy be reached? How does the thermal efficiency of the system change in reaction to various conditions of the process? On the basis of the experimental measurements and calculations, apart from other things, it was discovered that the pyrolysis liquid reaches the highest energetic value, i.e. 42.7 MJ.kg-1, out of all the individual products of the pyrolysis process. Generated pyrolysis gas disposes of the highest lower calorific value 37.1 MJ.kg-1 and the pyrolysis coke disposes of the maximum 30.9 MJ kg-1. From the energetic balance, the thermal efficiency of the experimental unit under the stated operational modes ranging from about 52 % to 56 % has been estimated. Individual findings are elaborated on detail in the article.
Effective use of energy in various branches of economy is one of world trends in development of power engineering. Relevant energy consumption occurs during exploitation of buildings, so there is still potential to diminish it as far as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning are concerned. Particularly in summer season, the choice of respective roofing colour can play a decisive role for the heat flux transferred to the inside of the object. Decrease of heat flux causes a lower heat burden to the building and lower power consumption by the air conditioning systems. In winter, on the contrary, heat flux transferred to building’s interior should be higher, as a result, demand of energy for heating will be lower. However, calculations of the heat flux require that energy balance must be made for the object. Unfortunately, not all producers of roofing covers inform about the values of reflectivity and thermal emissivity of their products, which is, in turn, necessary for calculations. In the present paper, research methodology elaborated by authors is proposed for determination of thermal emissivity of roofing covers. The paper presents test stand, methodology, and research results for roofing paper in blue colour (as an example) for which the thermal emissivity is an unknown parameter.
The paper presents the results of numerical computations performed for the furnace chamber waterwalls of a supercritical boiler with a steam output of 2400 × 103 kg/h. A model of distributed parameters is proposed for the waterwall operation simulation. It is based on the solution of equations describing the mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The aim of the calculations was to determine the distribution of enthalpy, mass flow and fluid pressure in tubes. The balance equations can be brought to a form where on the left-hand side space derivatives, and on the right-hand side – time derivatives are obtained. The time derivatives on the right-hand side were replaced with backward difference quotients. This system of ordinary differential equations was solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The calculation also takes account of the variable thermal load of the chamber along its height. This thermal load distribution is known from the calculations of the heat exchange in the combustion chamber. The calculations were carried out with the zone method.
To minimize oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission, maximize boiler combustion efficiency, achieve safe and reliable burner combustion, it is crucial to master global boiler and at-the-burner control of fuel and air flows. Non-uniform pulverized fuel (PF) and air flows to burners reduce flame stability and pose risk to boiler safety by risk of reverse flue gas and fuel flow into burners. This paper presents integrated techniques implemented at pilot ESKOM power plants for the determination of global boiler air/flue gas distribution, wind-box air distribution and measures for making uniform the flow being delivered to burners within a wind-box system. This is achieved by Process Flow Modelling, at-the-burner static pressure measurements and CFD characterization. Global boiler mass and energy balances combined with validated site measurements are used in an integrated approach to calculate the total (stoichiometric + excess) air mass flow rate required to burn the coal quality being fired, determine the actual quantity of air that flows through the burners and the furnace ingress air. CFD analysis and use of at-the-burner static, total pressure and temperature measurements are utilized in a 2-pronged approach to determine root-causes for burner fires and to evaluate secondary air distribution between burners.