In this paper, selected aspects of energy efficiency are shown. The European Union regulations in area of energy efficiency such as Directive 2012/27/EU, are discussed. The national legal regulations which describe energy efficiency such as the Energy Efficiency Act are presented. Principles concerning the obligation of energy savings and energy audits of enterprises are described. National, regional and local programs and measures concerning the improvement of energy efficiency are performed. These are horizontal measures and energy efficiency measures in: industry, transport, the buildings of public institutions and energy generation and supplies. National economy energy efficiency is shown. The energy intensity indicators (primary, final) and rate of their changes in last years are performed. Moreover, directions of undertakings connected with the possible future reduction in energy intensity of the national economy, are defined. An analysis of energy efficiency measures and solutions for the improvement of energy efficiency, especially in industry and households, is performed. The improvement of economy energy intensity indicators constitutes the most effective solution which brings significant economic, technical and environmental benefits such as an increase in economic innovation and its competitiveness, the improvement of the energy supply security level, a reduction in the consumption of natural resources and a reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The conclusions contain an analysis of the present level of energy efficiency in Poland and the perspectives of its increase in the future along with the benefits connected with it.
The paper presents the results of the energy analysis of the conversion of solar radiation energy into electrical energy in Polish weather conditions. The effect of sunlight and working temperature on the photovoltaic module on its power curve P = f(U) is shown. STC and NOCT conditions are described for which the manufacturers specify the parameters of the photovoltaic modules. The manufacturers of photovoltaic panels should give the PPV = f(E) characteristic for the different values of the operating temperature of the modules. An analysis of the economic efficiency of a photovoltaic power plant investment of 1 MWp taking the current legal regulations for the three variants into account was presented. Variant I – the investor benefits from the support of public aid of operational only, Variant II – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 1 million, Variant III – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 2 million. For all variants, indicators for assessing the economic effectiveness of the investment and the value of the auction price from the maximum price to the price at which the project loses its profitability are determined.
The energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules is one of the most important aspects in energetic and economic aspects of the project related to system installations. The efficiency of modules and the electricity produced by photovoltaic conversion in solar modules is affected by many factors, both internal, related to the module structure itself and its technical and external factors related to the energy infrastructure, which includes: cabling, inverters, climate conditions prevailing at the micro-installation location and the orientation and angle of inclination of the solar modules. The installation of photovoltaic modules should be preceded by an energy efficiency analysis, which will help to indicate the optimal solution adapted to the given conditions. The article presents a comparative analysis of the amount of energy produced under real and simulated conditions. Analyzes were made on the basis of research carried out in the Wind and Solar Energy Laboratory located at the AGH University of Science and Technology, data from solar irradiation data-bases and computer software for estimating energy resources. The study examined the correlation of the solar irradiation on the modules and the amount of electricity generated in the photovoltaic module. The electricity produced by the module was compared under real conditions and simulated based on two sources of data. The comparison and analysis of the amount of energy of the module were also made, taking simulated different angles of the module’s inclination into account.
The article deals with the subject of an important component of energy management, which is the performance of energy efficiency audits in companies. Using the case study analysis, the role of the energy audit was analyzed in the context of improvement of energy efficiency in selected production companies. The essence of legal requirements following from the implementation of the amended Energy Efficiency Act was presented. Specifically, problems and challenges, which refer to the method of implementation of the audit obligation in economic practice, were discussed. Furthermore, the issue of quality and usefulness (in the decision-making process) of prepared reports was raised. It was found that there were indications to claim that the obligatory energy audit of companies is not an instrument for the improvement of energy efficiency, which is always used optimally. The fault in this situation is partly attributable to the state, audit bodies and the company management. In this case, not only is the ineffective communication an issue here, but also the insufficient level of knowledge regarding energy management, as well as haste. The amendment of the Energy Efficiency Act (within just one year) imposed the necessity to conduct an energy audit on a specific group of companies. In principle, because all the entities, to which the obligation referred, had to take actions almost at the same time, numerous issues appeared. Some managers learned about the obligation to conduct the audit from companies who themselves had come out with a proposal to carry it out. This proves the lack of the proper information flow between the government administration authorities and the companies. Again, it turned out that practitioners did not keep pace with the implementation of actions, which were a consequence of numerous (and not always well thought-out) changes in the law. Haste in the fulfillment of the statutory obligation affected a high price spread of the bids sent during tenders, related to the performance of an energy audit. Bureaucratic regulations regarding tenders became another obstacle in the correct performance of the tasks. The entrepreneurs themselves, without clear guidelines on what to expect after the performed energy audit and what a report should look like, on many occasions, selected the “cheapest” bid – not always thinking too much about the qualitative consequences of such a decision. Some certifying bodies – taking advantage of an opportunity and the satisfactory combination of circumstances – offered unprofessional audit services of questionable quality. In the presented conditions, it is difficult to expect real, systemic and desirable results (economically, ecologically and socially) with regards to the energy efficiency both in the micro-, meso- and macr-economic scale. It is worth considering changes in the Energy Efficiency Act and spread the obligation to perform audits over different years according to clearly defined (in cooperation with business) criteria. If relevant actions are not taken, the situation of a temporary Eldorado on the market of energy audits will repeat in 4 years. Again, the consequence may be the poor quality and questionable usefulness of reports from energy audits of companies both at the business level and the ecological-political level. It is necessary to counteract all forms of unfair competition to interdisciplinary and specialist bodies which take actions to improve the energy efficiency of organisations. The creation of appropriate business conditions will have a positive impact on the improvement of energy efficiency. In this context, it is necessary to take actions, which enable the optimization of both the process of the implementation of obligatory legal regulations and voluntary (industry) norms and standards.
Pollution, climate change and energy security are significant problems. Climate-disrupting fossil fuels are being replaced by clean and non-depletable sources of energy. It requires major changes to energy infrastructures and strong support for promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. Renewable energy is emerging as a driver of inclusive economic growth and reinforcing energy security. Public entities have to promote renewable energy development by implementing cost-effective national support schemes. By acting at national-level, several barriers to public and private investments could be tackled, addressing the lack of coordination between various authorising bodies at national level and stimulatng the administrative capacity to implement energy projects. It should be effective in promoting transparency for investors and others economic operators. In Poland there is a lack of regulatory policies creating incentives for decentralised energy. Market-based support schemes are still needed for small-scale self-consumption system. Currently operating solutions have been shown in the contrast of the ones applied abroad. The development of clean energy technologies depends on many factors. The author identified few most important ones, mainly financial, regulatory issues, social, environmental and characterized them in this work. The article presents the recommendations of regulatory framework and some proposals for energy cluster based policy’s tools, the introduction of which would significantly facilitate the wider renewable energy uses in Poland.
This publication presents an assessment of the economic efficiency of a hypothetical installation for the gasification of the municipal and industrial waste for the production of syngas used subsequently for the production of energy or chemical products. The first part of the work presents an example of a technological system for the energo-chemical processing of coal mud and municipal waste, based on the gasification process using a fluidized bed reactor. A hypothetical installation consists of two main blocks: a fuel preparation unit and a gasification unit. In the fuel preparation installation, reception operations take place, storage, and then grinding, mixing, drying and transporting fuel to the gasification unit. In the gasification installation, fuel gasification, oxygen production, cooling and purification of raw process gas and ash treatment are carried out. The following key assumptions regarding the gasification process, as well as the capital expenditures and operating costs related to the process, were estimated. Consequently, based on the method of discounted cash flows, the unit cost of generating energy contained in the synthesis gas (cost of energy, COE) was determined and the results were interpreted. In order to obtain an acceptable efficiency of the gasification process for waste fuels for the production of alternative fuel (process gas), it is necessary to supplement the mixture of waste coal and coal mud with the RDF. In this case, the unit cost of fuel measured by the PLN/GJ index is lower than in the case of hard coal and comparable with brown coal. The use of coal mud for the production of process gas in an economically efficient way is possible only in the case of changes in the legal system allowing for charging fees for the utilization of industrial waste – coal mud.
Assumptions of the major political and legal documents of the European Union, dedicated to energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings provide the Member States with relevant instruments supporting improvement of the ambient air qualityby dissemination of measures reducing energy demand and promotion of renewable energysources. Mainstreaming EU legislation into national regulations constitutes initial stage of the long term process of supporting implementation of energy efficiency measures. Experience in the improvement of energy performance of the residential buildings revealslimited efficiency of the measures implemented up to date, which results in significantair pollution of Polish cities. The national Action Plans had adopted a limited scope of recommendations included in the EU directives, hence the process meets significant challenges.The article describes adaptation of the relevant EU directives as well as the National Urban Policy in terms of the potential to effectively address faced challenges.
The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the energy efficiency of the phytoremediation process, supported using energy crops. The scope of conducted work includes the preparation of a field experiment. During the evaluation, 2 factors were into consideration – total energy demand and total energy benefit. The case study, used as an origin of data, consists a 3-years field study, conducted with the use of 2 energy crops – Phalaris arundinacea L. and Brassica napus L. The area subjected to the experiment was polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and herbicides, classified as phenoxy acids (2, 4 D). The experimental design consisted of 4 groups of fields, divided according to the used plant species and type of treatment. For each energy crop, 2 types of fertilization strategies were used. Therefore the 1st and 3rd sets of fields were not treated with any soil amendment while the 2nd and 4th sets were fertilized with compost. The obtained data allowed to observe that the cultivation of P. arundinacea L. and B. napus L. allowed a positive energy balance of the process to be achieved. However, it should be noted, that the B. napus L. growth in the first vegetation season was not sufficient to fully compensate a total energy demand. Such a goal, in the mentioned case, was possible after the 2nd vegetation season. The collected results show also that the best energetic potential combined with the most effective soil remediation were obtained on the fields with the cultivation of P. arundinacea L. fertilized with compost. The number of biofuels, collected from the 1 ha of such fields, can reach a value equal even to12.76 Mg of coal equivalent.
Technical and operational energy efficiency measures for ships, such as the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP), aim to improve the energy efficiency of international shipping. Studies show that absolute emissions from international shipping will increase despite their mandatory application. For this reason, it is important to assess the impact on the effectiveness of the application of mandatory efficiency measures on future emissions. Further measures are being developed at the International Maritime Organization to control emissions from ships, in particular greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. In January 2019, a system of collecting fuel consumption data by ships (Ship Fuel Oil Consumption Database) was introduced. Energy efficiency measures promoted by the IMO Maritime Environment Protection Committee, initially as facultative, then as mandatory, show strong preventive character. The mandatory use of energy efficiency measures by ships as well as the development of energy efficiency management policies by shipping companies contributes to climate protection and adaptation to climate change.
Recently, the search for new effective energy production solutions has been focused on the production of electricity using renewable and environmentally friendly carriers. This resulted in an increased interest in PV cells and cogeneration systems. The article looks at the main factors affecting their operational parameters against the background of the development history of subsequent generations of PV cells. Average daily solar radiation and wind velocity in Lodz were characterized. The research was done on a static and tracking system with a total peak power of 15 kWp and a 30 kW microturbine. PV panels are installed on the building of the Institute of Electrical Power Engineering of the Lodz University of Technology and they work as part of DERLab. A microturbine is inside the building. Energy measurements were carried out in 2016 giving grounds for the analysis of energy efficiency and financial analysis of the energy supply in buildings. Energy yields in the static and tracking system as well as percentage coverage of electricity from PV cells and microturbines were assessed. The distribution of monthly savings, annual savings of energy costs and the payback time of the investment costs of the systems subject to the test were determined. The research we have done allows us to say that the energy produced by follow-up modules is about 3 times greater than that generated in stationary modules. On the other hand, the annual savings of energy costs using gas micro-turbines are about 10 times higher than those of lagging panels. The analysis shows that it is possible to determine the profitability of the microturbine and photovoltaic panels use despite large financial outlays. The payback period of investment outlays is about 12 years when using the installation throughout the year.
Using renewable energy sources for electricity production is based on the processing of primary energy occurring in the form of sun, wind etc., into electrical energy. Economic viability using those sources in small power plants strongly depends on the support system, based mainly on financial instruments. Micro-installations, by using special instruments dedicated to the prosumer market may become more and more interesting not only in terms of environmental energy, but also financial independence. In the paper, the term hybrid power plant is understood to mean a production unit generating electricity or electricity and heat in the process of energy production, in which two or more renewable energy sources or energy sources other than renewable sources are used. The combination of the two energy sources is to their mutual complementarity, to ensure the continuity of the electricity supply. The ideal situation would be if both sources of energy included in the hybrid power plant continuously covered the total demand for energy consumers. Unfortunately, due to the short-term and long-term variability of weather conditions, such a balance is unattainable. The paper assesses the possibility of balancing the hybrid power plant in daily and monthly periods. Basic types of power plants and hybrid components and system support micro-installations were characterized. The support system is based particularly on a system of feed-in tariffs and the possibility of obtaining a preferential loan with a subsidy (redemption of part of the loan size). Then, an analysis of energy and economic efficiency for a standard set of hybrid micro-installations consisting of a wind turbine and photovoltaic panels with a total power of 5 kW, were presented. Fourteen variants of financing, economic efficiency compared with the use of the method of the simple payback period were assumed.
As a result of introduction of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, all of the EU member states are obliged to introduce legal regulations for energy performance of all newly constructed buildings. The key aim is to achieve close to zero energy use starting from the year 2021. Estimating effectiveness of the actions and the new possibilities requires an analysis of the multiple criteria. They comprise both the current conditions as well as the changes that have occurred in the recent years due to new legislation, the eff ects of the subsidies and the development of the housing stock. This paper presents a broad overview and diagnosis of current situation. The development of the energy-efficient and passive housing in Poland is considered in the context of financial incentives, availability of design knowledge and building technology as well as the role of the green building certification.
Architecture is a discipline combining aesthetics with technology. This paper is focusing on the relationship between aesthetics and energy efficiency in architecture with special interest in solar collectors and photovoltaic panels as technological equipment of the buildings. The paper takes into consideration the present situation and architectural development in northern Poland, with some input basing on European experiences. The paper defi nes aesthetics and effi ciency in the field of architectural design as well as the use of public and urban spaces. Authors present also some case studies regarding the use of solar panels in selected architectural examples. The paper ends with summary and some conclusions including the need for further research in the field of architectural design, technology and product design, as well as the perception of urbanised spaces and the important field of economic and financial factors connected to the topic.
This paper presents the origins of marine steam turbine application on liquefied natural gas carriers. An analysis of alternative propulsion plant trends has been made. The more efficient ones with marine diesel engines gradually began to replace the less efficient plants. However, because of many advantages of the steam turbine, further development research is in progress in order to achieve comparable thermal efficiency. Research has been carried out in order to achieve higher thermal efficiency throughout increasing operational parameters of superheated steam before the turbine unit; improving its efficiency to bring it nearer to the ideal Carnot cycle by applying a reheating system of steam and multi stage regenerative boiler feed water heating. Furthermore, heat losses of the system are reduced by: improving the design of turbine blades, application of turbine casing and bearing cooling, as well as reduction in steam flow resistance in pipe work and maneuvering valves. The article identifies waste energy sources using the energy balance of a steam turbine propulsion plant applied on the liquefied natural gas carrier which was made out basing on results of a passive operation experiment, using the measured and calculated values from behavioral equations for the zero-dimensional model. Thermodynamic functions of state of waste heat fluxes have been identified in terms of their capability to be converted into usable energy fluxes. Thus, new ways of increasing the efficiency of energy conversion of a steam turbine propulsion plant have been addressed.
The purpose of this article was to discuss the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat recovery. The introduction discusses the need to undertake broader measures for the effective management of waste heat in the industry and discusses the benefits and technical problems related to heat recovery in industrial plants. In addition, heat sources for adsorption chillers and their application examples were described. The principle of operation of adsorption chillers is explained in the next chapter. Heat sources for adsorption chillers are indicated and their application examples are described. The above considerations have allowed the benefits and technical obstacles related to the use of adsorption chillers to be highlighted. The currently used adsorbents and adsorbates are discussed later in the article. The main part of the paper discusses the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat management in the glassworks. The calculations assumed the natural gas demand of 20.1 million m3 per year and the electricity demand of 20,000 MWh/year. As a result of conducted calculations, a 231 kW adsorption chiller, ensuring the annual cold production of 2,021 MWh, was selected. The economic analysis of the proposed solution has shown that the investment in the adsorption chiller supplied with waste heat from the heat recovery system will bring significant economic benefits after 10 years from its implementation, even with total investment costs of PLN 1,900,000. However, it was noted that in order to obtain satisfactory economic results the production must meet the demand while the cost of building a heat recovery system shall not exceed PLN 1 million.
According to the European Environment Agency (EEA 2018), air quality in Poland is one of the worst in Europe. There are several sources of air pollution, but the condition of the air in Poland is primarily the result of the so-called low-stack emissions from the household sector. The main reason for the emission of pollutants is the combustion of low-quality fuels (mainly low-quality coal) and waste, and the use of obsolete heating boilers with low efficiency and without appropriate filters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of measures aimed at reducing low-stack emissions from the household sector (boiler replacement, change of fuel type, and thermal insulation of buildings), resulting from environmental regulations, on the improvement of energy efficiency and the emission of pollutants from the household sector in Poland. Stochastic energy and mass balance models for a hypothetical household, which were used to assess the impact of remedial actions on the energy efficiency and emission of pollutants, have been developed. The annual energy consumption and emissions of pollutants were estimated for hypothetical households before and after the implementation of a given remedial action. The calculations, using the Monte Carlo simulation, were carried out for several thousand hypothetical households, for which the values of the technical parameters (type of residential building, residential building area, unitary energy demand for heating, type of heat source) were randomly drawn from probability distributions developed on the basis of the analysis of the domestic structure of households. The model takes the coefficients of correlation between the explanatory variables in the model into account. The obtained results were multiplied so that the number of hypothetical households was equal to 14.1 million, i.e. the real number of households in Poland. The obtained results allowed for identifying the potential for reducing the emission of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and nitrogen oxides, and improving the energy efficiency as a result of the proposed and implemented measures, aimed at reducing low-stack emission, resulting from the policy. The potential for emissions of gaseous pollutants is 94% for CO, 49% for NOx, 90% for dust, and 87% for SO2. The potential for improving the energy efficiency in households is around 42%.
An analysis of energy efficiency for transcritical compression unit with CO2 (R744) as the refrigerant has been carried out using empirical operating characteristics for the two-phase ejector. The first stage of the refrigerant compression is carried out in the ejector. The criterion adopted for the estimation of energy efficiency for the cycle is the coefficient of performance COP. The analysis is performed for the heat pump and refrigeration systems. The results of COP for the systems with the ejector has been compared with the COPL values for the single stage Linde cycle.
The evaporation temperature is regarded as one of the major parameters influencing the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) efficiency. Majority of contributions in literature for ORC cycle analyses treat the heat source as if it had an infinite heat capacity. Such analyses are not valuable as the resulting temperature drops of the heat source needs to be small. That leads to the fact that the heat source is not well explored and in the case of waste heat utilization it can prove the poor economics of the ORC. In the present study cooperation of the ORC cycle with the heat source available as a single phase or phase changing fluids is considered. The analytical heat balance models have been developed, which enable in a simple way calculation of heating fluid temperature variation as well as the ratio of flow rates of heating and working fluids in ORC cycle. The developed analytical expressions enable also calculation of the outlet temperature of the heating fluid.
In this paper, the thermodynamic investigation on the use of geothermal water (130°C as maximum) for power generation through a basic Rankine has been presented together with obtained main results. Six typical organic working fluids (i.e., R245fa, R141b, R290, R600, R152a, and 134a) were studied with modifying the input pressure and temperature to the turbine. The results show that there are no significant changes taking place in the efficiency for these working fluids with overheating the inlet fluid to the turbine, i.e., efficiency is a weak function of temperature. However, with the increasing of pressure ratio in the turbine, the efficiency rises more sharply. The technical viability is shown of implementing this type of process for recovering low temperature heat resource.
Improving energy efficiency is key to moving toward sustainable development. It contributes to the reduction of energy consumption and carbon emissions, as well as to climate change mitigation. Indicators of energy efficiency play an important role in this field because their improvement is targeted by policy makers. Indicators based on the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) are currently used by multiple key organizations, including Eurostat and the World Bank, as the main energy efficiency indicators. This study examines the most widely used indicators and identifies their deficiencies. Over the last decades, these indicators tend to show a continuous strong improvement, signifying positive progress toward energy efficiency, even in cases when the physical consumption of energy has increased significantly. This phenomenon is based on GDP adjustment. The energy intensity of economies, used currently to measure energy efficiency, masks problems and has led to the green labeling of wealthier economies. An analysis of energy efficiencies reported for multiple countries and the structure of their energy spending shows that the reported values are counterproductive for comparing economies in the context of environmental protection. The indicators sanction economies with low energy consumption and low or moderate GDP. The economies belonging to the group of the largest energy spenders per capita are labeled highly efficient because of GDP adjustment. Decision makers are therefore prompted to focus on GDP growth even at the cost of a major increase in energy consumption. An additional problem in the indicators is that they do not properly model international trade. The responsibility for energy spending is shifted toward the producers of energy-intensive goods and services. Energy intensity is a useful indicator to measure the resistance of an economy to the volatilities of energy prices. However, the challenges in the fields of environmental pollution and climate change are related to physical processes and energy consumption rather than to changes in the GDP or the monetary valuation of products and services. Indicators measuring energy efficiency as GDP per unit of energy use are inadequate and misleading as principal tools to measure energy efficiency.
The aim of the investigation presented in this work was to realise complex calculations of a new, combined water-steam system with peak-load hydrogen turbine to be applied in nuclear units with gas-cooled reactors. The system’s characteristic feature is the presence of two heat sources: a nuclear steam generator; and a hydrogen-oxygen combustion chamber. The main idea is to create a system capable to operate in two modes, with one or two heat sources, which leads to a significant output change. The investigation included also the overall efficiency of conversion of the nuclear energy, assumed the heat needed for producing hydrogen and oxygen comes from such a source. This part of the work included an analysis of the rationality of hydrogen production and utilisation. An additional aim of the research was to determine the optimal solution regarding the system performance and the capability of its technical realisation. The obtained results are promising: the system performance is very high, and its operating parameters are technically realisable in today’s conditions. In addition, it enables an emission-free, dispatchable electricity generation during the daytime demand peak.
The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.
The energy saving tendencies, in reference to residential buildings, can be recently seen in Europe and in the world. Therefore, there are a lot of studies being conducted aiming to find technical solutions in order to improve the energy efficiency of existing, modernized, and also new buildings. However, there are obligatory solutions and requirements, which must be implemented during designing stage of the building envelope and its heating/cooling system. They are gathered in the national regulations. The paper describes the process of raising the energy standard of buildings between 1974–2021 in Poland. Therefore, the objective of this study is to show energy savings, which can be generated by modernization of thermal insulation of partitions of existing buildings and by the use of different ways of heat supply. The calculations are made on the selected multi-family buildings located in Poland, with the assumption of a 15 years payback time. It is shown that it is not possible to cover the costs of the modernization works by the projected savings with the compliance to the assumption of 15 years payback time.
Among the numerous modern, high-efficiency energy technologies allowing for the conversion of chemical energy of coal into electricity and heat, the Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC) deserve special attention. These are devices that allow, as the only one among all types of fuel cells, to directly convert the chemical energy contained in solid fuel (coal) into electricity. In addition, they are characterized by high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. The paper reviews and discusses previous research and development works, both around the world and in Poland, into the technology of direct carbon fuel cells with an alkaline (hydroxide) electrolyte.
The aim of this paper is to discuss energy certification systems and multi-criteria certification schemes – both the assessment tools focusing on the level of the single building and on the urban level. The role of certification systems and the emerging technologies as a means of reducing energy consumption and achieving the high energy quality of the built environment is investigated.