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Number of results: 7
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Abstract

The article discusses issues related to the generation, use, and transboundary movement of waste labeled with the code 191210 according to the waste catalogue regardless of its origin (municipal, industrial or mixed). Data contained in voivodship reports related to waste management and information about transboundary shipments shared by the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection were also used in the article. The imbalance in the amount of produced and energetically used alternative fuels in Poland in the years 2015 to 2017 has been confirmed. This affects the economy of the waste management sector involved in the production of alternative fuels. The oversupply causes the prices of alternative fuels to fall and increases the need for subsidies in the case of the recovery or disposal of alternative fuels of lower quality. In the near future one should expect a stabilization of the supply of combustible waste to the cement industry, which is now beginning to achieve its technological potential; this is due to a high degree of replacement of fossil fuels. One should also expect an increase in the demand for alternative fuels from the commercial power sector and heating sector. It has been shown that much more alternative fuel is imported than exported from Poland. The amount of imported alternative fuel in the market is relatively low compared to the amount of fuel produced in the country. This oversupply affects, although not significantly, the possibility of using domestic waste for energy recovery. The export of the alternative fuel produced in the country is a favorable phenomenon when there is no possibility of sale on the domestic market. It seems rational, especially in the case of exports from installations producing fuels in border provinces.
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Abstract

The purpose of this article was to discuss the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat recovery. The introduction discusses the need to undertake broader measures for the effective management of waste heat in the industry and discusses the benefits and technical problems related to heat recovery in industrial plants. In addition, heat sources for adsorption chillers and their application examples were described. The principle of operation of adsorption chillers is explained in the next chapter. Heat sources for adsorption chillers are indicated and their application examples are described. The above considerations have allowed the benefits and technical obstacles related to the use of adsorption chillers to be highlighted. The currently used adsorbents and adsorbates are discussed later in the article. The main part of the paper discusses the use of adsorption chillers for waste heat management in the glassworks. The calculations assumed the natural gas demand of 20.1 million m3 per year and the electricity demand of 20,000 MWh/year. As a result of conducted calculations, a 231 kW adsorption chiller, ensuring the annual cold production of 2,021 MWh, was selected. The economic analysis of the proposed solution has shown that the investment in the adsorption chiller supplied with waste heat from the heat recovery system will bring significant economic benefits after 10 years from its implementation, even with total investment costs of PLN 1,900,000. However, it was noted that in order to obtain satisfactory economic results the production must meet the demand while the cost of building a heat recovery system shall not exceed PLN 1 million.
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Abstract

The article analyzes the risk factors related to the energy use of alternative fuels from waste. The essence of risk and its impact on economic activity in the area of waste management were discussed. Then, a risk assessment, on the example of waste fractions used for the production of alternative fuel, was carried out. In addition, the benefits for the society and the environment from the processing of alternative fuels for energy purposes, including, among others: reducing the cost of waste disposal, limiting the negative impact on water, soil and air, reducing the amount of waste deposited, acquisition of land; reduction of the greenhouse effect, facilitating the recycling of other fractions, recovery of electricity and heat, and saving conventional energy carriers, were determined. The analysis of risk factors is carried out separately for plants processing waste for alternative fuel production and plants producing energy from this type of fuel. Waste processing plants should pay attention to investment, market (price, interest rate, and currency), business climate, political, and legal risks, as well as weather, seasonal, logistic, technological, and loss of profitability or bankruptcy risks. Similar risks are observed in the case of energy companies, as they operate in the same external environment. Moreover, internal risks may be similar; however, the specific nature of the operation of each enterprise should be taken into account. Energy companies should pay particular attention to the various types of costs that may threaten the stability of operation, especially in the case of regulated energy prices. The risk associated with the inadequate quality of the supplied and stored fuels is important. This risk may disrupt the technological process and reduce the plant’s operational efficiency. Heating plants and combined heat and power plants should also not underestimate the non-catastrophic weather risk, which may lead to a decrease in heat demand and a reduction in business revenues. A comprehensive approach to risk should protect enterprises against possible losses due to various types of threats, including both external and internal threats.
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Abstract

The paper describes practical results of four-year laboratory studies completed to estimate technically feasible conditions of upgrading an existing sludge disposal system. A minimization of sludge mass and volume together with an energy recovery improvement were main goals of these activities. The way from lab studies and simulations to full scale investments has been shown with a special emphasis on application of respirometric procedure being applied by authors. Proposed was authors’ procedure for an estimation of a digestion time prediction for sludge of specific composition. Investigations completed at existing wastewater treatment plant resulted in practical implementation to be used during the design of upgrading and extension of the digestion and energy recovery system at the plant. It was proved that proposed changes provide close to optimum conditions for process performance and the application of proposed calculation procedures was adopted by design team
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Abstract

Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses) is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.
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Abstract

The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.
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Abstract

In this study, the influences of different parameters at performance two-phase closed thermosiphon (TPCT) was presented. It has been confirmed that the working fluid, as well as operating parameters and fill ratio, are very important factors in the performance of TPCT. The article shows characteristics of gravitational tube geometries, as well as the technical characteristic of the most important system components, i.e., the evaporator/condenser. The experiment’s plan and the results of it for the two-phase thermosiphon for both evaluated geometries with varying thermal and fluid flow parameters are presented. Experiments were performed for the most perspective working fluids, namely: water, R134a, SES36, ethanol and HFE7100. Obtained research proves the possibility to use TPCT for heat recovery from the industrial waste water.
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