The article attempts to identify environmental conditions for the development of cogeneration companies in Poland. The article systematizes knowledge about environmental regulations which concern this issue. Within the framework of identified environmental conditions, the authors characterize issues related to national legislation that regulates the operation of cogeneration companies, as well as the requirements resulting from European Union and national regulations in this matter. These regulations, directly and indirectly, affect the long-term future of cogeneration companies and the energy sector as a whole. Undoubtedly, in the current state of environmental regulations in force, the key change for a power company such as a cogeneration company is to meet the requirements for the emission of harmful substances. The change was introduced in 2016 as a result of more stringent emission limits and the adoption of the IED (Industrial Emissions Directive). The implementation of recommendations of the BAT (Best Available Techniques) Conclusions in 2017 additionally tightened the required limits. Undeniably, the key period for cogeneration companies will be 2021 as per the implementation of imposed harmful substances emission’s limits. The article comprehensively discusses the conditions that substantially affect the long-term growth of a cogeneration company and are crucial when making assumptions intended to address strategic development issues in the domestic fuel and power sector.
The implementation of EU environmental regulations in the energy sector is challenging for the power industry of its member states. The main role is played by documents such as the Winter Package and, especially, the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the emission limits of certain pollutants and the implementation of BAT conclusions in order to achieve the EU’s decarbonization objectives. These regulations impose a greater need to control harmful substances emitted to the atmosphere while using fossil fuels, including hard coal, which is the main fuel for domestic units. At the same time, the decline in domestic fossil fuel production and decrease in the quality of parameters of the hard coal makes it difficult to purchase the proper fuel for power plants. As a consequence, the costs of hard coal increase. The article presents the concept of a mathematical model that can be applied for the optimization of coal supplies. The employment of this model allows one to achieve cost reductions. One of the advantages of the proposed tool, in addition to minimizing the cost of purchase and use of hard coal, is its rational management, especially for companies producing and using hard coal.