Fractal analysis is one of the rapidly evolving branches of mathematics and finds its application in different analyses such as pore space description. It constitutes a new approach to the issue of their natural irregularity and roughness. To be properly applied, it should be encompassed by an error estimation. The article presents and verifies uncertainties along with imperfections connected with image analysis and expands on the possible ways of their correction. One of key aspects of such research is finding both appropriate place and the number of photos to take. A coarse- grained sandstone thin section was photographed and then pictures were combined into one, bigger image. Fractal parameters distributions show their change and suggest that the accurately gathered group of photos include both highly and less porous regions. Their amount should be representative and adequate to the sample. The resolution influence on the fractal dimension and lacunarity values was examined. For SEM limestone images obtained using backscattered electrons, magnification in the range of 120x to 2000x was used. Additionally, a single pore was examined. The acquired results point to the fact that the values of fractal dimension are similar to a wide range of magnifications, while lacunarity changes each time. This is connected with changing homogeneity of the image. The article also undertakes a problem of determining fractal parameters spatial distribution based on binarization. The available methods assume that it is carried out after or before the image division into rectangles to create fractal dimension and lacunarity values for interpolation. An individual binarization, although time consuming, provides better results that resemble reality to a closer degree. It is not possible to define a single, correct methodology of error elimination. A set of hints has been presented that can improve results of further image analysis of pore space.
Generally, gross errors exist in observations, and they affect the accuracy of results. We review methods to detect the gross errors by Robust estimation method based on L1-estimation theory and their validity in adjustment of geodetic networks with different condition. In order to detect the gross errors, we transform the weight of accidental model into equivalent one using not standardized residual but residual of observation, and apply this method to adjustment computation of triangulation network, traverse network, satellite geodetic network and so on. In triangulation network, we use a method of transforming into equivalent weight by residual and detect gross error in parameter adjustment without and with condition. The result from proposed method is compared with the one from using standardized residual as equivalent weight. In traverse network, we decide the weight by Helmert variance component estimation, and then detect gross errors and compare by the same way with triangulation network In satellite geodetic network in which observations are correlated, we detect gross errors transforming into equivalent correlation matrix by residual and variance inflation factor and the result is also compared with the result from using standardized residual. The results of detection are shown that it is more convenient and effective to detect gross errors by residual in geodetic network adjustment of various forms than detection by standardized residual.
Time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (ADC) architecture is crucial to increase the maximum sample rate. However, offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and timing error between time-interleaved channels degrade the performance of time-interleaved ADCs. This paper focuses on the gain mismatch and timing error. Techniques based on Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for estimating and correcting gain mismatch and timing error in an M-channel ADC are depicted. Numerical simulations are used to verify the proposed estimation and correction algorithm.