Good quality communication in the family is a source of positive relations among its members. It is the most important characteristic of a well-functioning family. Very interesting perceptions of communication in the family are held by high achieving students. In those young people, communication in the family correlates negatively with their high grade point average. Also, they evaluate positively communication in the family as a whole but less positively one-to-one verbal interactions with the mother and the father. This observation is explained by the fact that the family forms a system. Moreover, communication is associated with positive relationships and attitudes such as acceptance and autonomy, but correlates negatively with control, over-demanding behaviour, and inconsistency in the parents of high achieving students.
The article describes Family Group Conference method, which was initiated in Poland over 10 years ago by J. Przepierski. The method is presented in historical context of their theoretical foundations and particular practical assets justifying its application in work with families in a crisis situation and moments of difficulties, which might constitute an obstacle in the use of the method.
The article presents the representative examples of modernist villas built as a part of patronage housing estates raised during the erection of the Central Industrial District. The author describes building’s functional solutions and their architectural shape and highlight their role in urban systems. Analysis of selected examples characterize mechanisms of creative processes as well as the associations which influenced their forming. The villas from the areas of the most important COP’s investments have similar ideological architectural workshop, despite differences in their formal appear. Their aesthetic, functional and esthetic attributes are part of a multi-dimensional architectural heritage of the Central Industrial District.
Family engagement favorably influences student achievement, yet information addressing how schools and communities can effectively partner with diverse families remains lacking. This paper examines two examples that are illustrative of the some of “best” examples of parent engagement; yet they are still problematic. Using the theoretical frameworks of liberalism and postcolonial theory, this paper critiques these cases and specifically the concepts of capacity building, agency, and empowerment as they relate to urban parents’ school engagement. A critical examination of these cases yields the following conclusion and implication for researchers and practitioners alike: what might change and how might these “best” examples of parent engagement be less harmful if rather than perceiving parents as having a deficit and needing knowledge, principals, school administrators, teachers, and parents themselves capitalized on the strengths and knowledge parents already possess about their children and their communities rather than feeling obliged to dispel information and craf tparent engagement as it has traditionally been constructed and exemplified in these programs?
In the article the affiliation of Kujarke in genealogical classification is discussed. The Kujarke language is an isolate from Chad-Sudan neighborhood, described by the anthropologist Doornbos in 1981 (partially published in 1983). The present study operates with all c. 200 lexemes collected by Doornbos and evaluates their affinities in neighboring languages classified as Chadic and Nilo-Saharan. It is possible to conclude that Kujarke probably represents an independent group of East Chadic branch. From the neighboring Nilo-Saharan languages the strongest influence was identified from the Fur family.
Finite mixture and Markov-switching models generalize and, therefore, nest specifications featuring only one component. While specifying priors in the general (mixture) model and its special (single-component) case, it may be desirable to ensure that the prior assumptions introduced into both structures are compatible in the sense that the prior distribution in the nested model amounts to the conditional prior in the mixture model under relevant parametric restriction. The study provides the rudiments of setting compatible priors in Bayesian univariate finite mixture and Markov-switching models. Once some primary results are delivered, we derive specific conditions for compatibility in the case of three types of continuous priors commonly engaged in Bayesian modeling: the normal, inverse gamma, and gamma distributions. Further, we study the consequences of introducing additional constraints into the mixture model’s prior on the conditions. Finally, the methodology is illustrated through a discussion of setting compatible priors for Markov-switching AR(2) models.
The town of Siemianowice Śląskie is where we can find a palace-and-park complex which nowadays serves as the Town Park. The complex used to be owned by the Henckel von Donnersmarck family; today it is open to everyone looking for either active or passive leisure. Apart from its historical value (the complex being the most significant monument of the town), the park is also of special importance to the environment. It can be seen as an enclave of greenery and a sanctuary for plants and animals. Moreover, together with the neighbouring recreation area and ecological sites, the park contributes to the symbolic “green lungs” of the town
The concept of family reunification is well established in contemporary migration laws, at both the national and international levels. Focusing on international and EU law, in this article I argue that while existing provisions on family reunification are formulated in neutral language, from the gender point of view the enforcement of these substantively neutral rules may, in certain situations, result in discrimination, or at least bring about negative consequences, with respect to women in cases both when they are the sponsors of migration or the bearers of consequences of male migration. Following presentation of the international legal framework on family reunification and the relevant international jurisprudence, I deal with some rather common aspects relating to the personal scope of family reunification regulations, covering only the issues of who can, and who cannot, join their family member(s)/sponsor(s) in a foreign country (i.e. the unmarried minor rule, excluded forms of marriages – polygamous and forced marriages - and age limits). Some procedural aspects of family reunification are then dealt with (waiting periods, delays in proceedings, and end of a relationship as a cause for termination of residence rights.). These issues are examined with respect to concerns that they may cause indirect, or even direct, gender discrimination in some cases, while in others they may affect women more negatively than men.
States and individuals are the essential building blocks of international law. Normally, their identity seems to be solidly established. However, modern international law is widely permeated by the notion of freedom from natural or societal constraints. This notion, embodied for individuals in the concept of human rights, has enabled human beings to overcome most of the traditional ties of dependency and being subjected to dominant social powers. Beyond that, even the natural specificity of a human as determined by birth and gender is being widely challenged. The law has made far-going concessions to this pressure. The right to leave one’s own country, including renouncing one’s original nationality, epitomizes the struggle for individual freedom. On the other hand, States generally do not act as oppressive powers but provide comprehensive protection to their nationals. Stateless persons live in a status of precarious insecurity. All efforts should be supported which are aimed at doing away with statelessness or non-recognition as a human person through the refusal to issue identity documents. Disputes about the collective identity of States also contain two different aspects. On the one hand, disin tegrative tendencies manifest themselves through demands for separate statehood by min ority groups. Such secession movements, as currently reflected above all in the Spanish provin ce of Catalonia, have no basis in in ternational law except for situations where a group suffers grave structural discrimin ation (remedial secession). As the common homeland of its citizens, every State also has the right to take care of its sociological identity. Many controversies focus on the distin ction between citizens and aliens. This distin ction is well rooted in domestic and in ternational law. Changes in that regard cannot be made lightly. At the universal level, international law has not given birth to a right to be granted asylum. At the regional level, the European Union has put in to force an extremely generous system that provides a right of asylum not only to persons persecuted in dividually, but also affords “subsidiary protection” to persons in danger of bein g harmed by military hostilities. It is open to doubt whether the EU in stitutions have the competence to assign quotas of refugees to in dividual Member States. The relevant judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union of 6 September 2017 was hasty and avoided the core issue: the compatibility of such decisions with the guarantee of national identity established under Article 4(2) of the EU Treaty.