Accurate network fault diagnosis in smart substations is key to strengthening grid security. To solve fault classification problems and enhance classification accuracy, we propose a hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of three parts: anti-noise processing (ANP), an improved separation interval method (ISIM), and a genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (GA-PSO) method. ANP cleans out the outliers and noise in the dataset. ISIM uses a support vector machine (SVM) architecture to optimize SVM kernel parameters. Finally, we propose the GA-PSO algorithm, which combines the advantages of both genetic and particle swarm optimization algorithms to optimize the penalty parameter. The experimental results show that our proposed hybrid optimization algorithm enhances the classification accuracy of smart substation network faults and shows stronger performance compared with existing methods.
Journal bearings are the most common type of bearings in which a shaft freely rotates in a metallic sleeve. They find a lot of applications in industry, especially where extremely high loads are involved. Proper analysis of the various bearing faults and predicting the modes of failure beforehand are essential to increase the working life of the bearing. In the current study, the vibration data of a journal bearing in the healthy condition and in five different fault conditions are collected. A feature extraction method is employed to classify the different fault conditions. Automatic fault classification is performed using artificial neural networks (ANN). As the probability of a correct prediction goes down for a higher number of faults in ANN, the method is made more robust by incorporating deep neural networks (DNN) with the help of autoencoders. Training was done using the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm and the performance was calculated by the cross entropy method. Due to the increased number of hidden layers in DNN, it is possible to achieve a high efficiency of 100% with the feature extraction method.
This paper presents a novel strategy of fault classification for the analog circuit under test (CUT). The proposed classification strategy is implemented with the one-against-one Support Vector Machines Classifier (SVC), which is improved by employing a fault dictionary to accelerate the testing procedure. In our investigations, the support vectors and other relevant parameters are obtained by training the standard binary support vector machines. In addition, a technique of radial-basis-function (RBF) kernel parameter evaluation and selection is invented. This technique can find a good and proper kernel parameter for the SVC prior to the machine learning. Two typical analog circuits are demonstrated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Power electronic circuits (PECs) are prone to various failures, whose classification is of paramount importance. This paper presents a data-driven based fault diagnosis technique, which employs a support vector data description (SVDD) method to perform fault classification of PECs. In the presented method, fault signals (e.g. currents, voltages, etc.) are collected from accessible nodes of circuits, and then signal processing techniques (e.g. Fourier analysis, wavelet transform, etc.) are adopted to extract feature samples, which are subsequently used to perform offline machine learning. Finally, the SVDD classifier is used to implement fault classification task. However, in some cases, the conventional SVDD cannot achieve good classification performance, because this classifier may generate some so-called refusal areas (RAs), and in our design these RAs are resolved with the one-against-one support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The obtained experiment results from simulated and actual circuits demonstrate that the improved SVDD has a classification performance close to the conventional one-against-one SVM, and can be applied to fault classification of PECs in practice.
In order to make the analog fault classification more accurate, we present a method based on the Support Vector Machines Classifier (SVC) with wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) as a preprocessor. In this paper, the conventional one-against-rest SVC is resorted to perform a multi-class classification task because this classifier is simple in terms of training and testing. However, this SVC needs all decision functions to classify the query sample. In our study, this classifier is improved to make the fault classification task more fast and efficient. Also, in order to reduce the size of the feature samples, the wavelet packet analysis is employed. In our investigations, the wavelet analysis can be used as a tool of feature extractor or noise filter and this preprocessor can improve the fault classification resolution of the analog circuits. Moreover, our investigation illustrates that the SVC can be applicable to the domain of analog fault classification and this novel classifier can be viewed as an alternative for the back-propagation (BP) neural network classifier.
Self-aligning roller bearings are an integral part of the industrial machinery. The proper analysis and prediction of the various faults that may happen to the bearing beforehand contributes to an increase in the working life of the bearing. This study aims at developing a novel method for the analysis of the various faults in self-aligning bearings as well as the automatic classification of faults using artificial neural network (ANN) and deep neural network (DNN). The vibration data is collected for six different faults as well as for the healthy bearing. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) followed by Hilbert Huang transform is used to extract instantaneous frequency peaks which are used for fault analysis. Time domain and time-frequency domain features are then extracted which are used to implement the neural networks through the pattern recognition tool in MATLAB. A comparative study of the outputs from the two neural networks is also performed. From the confusion matrix, the efficiency of the ANN has been found to be 95.7% and using DNN has been found to be 100%.