This paper presents a model of scheduling of multi unit construction project based on an NP-hard permutation flow shop problem, in which the considered criterion is the sum of the costs of the works' execution of the project considering the time of the project as a constraint. It is also assumed that each job in the units constituting the project may be realized in up to three different ways with specific time and cost of execution. The optimization task relies on solving the problem with two different decision variables: the order of execution of units (permutation) and a set of ways to carry out the works in units. The task presented in the paper is performed with the use of a created algorithm which searches the space of solutions in which metaheuristic simulated annealing algorithm is used. The paper presents a calculation example showing the applicability of the model in the optimization of sub-contractors' work in the construction project.
The Slyngfjellet Conglomerate which occurs at the base of the Upper Proterozoic Sofiebogen Group in South Spitsbergen had formed predominantly as a debris-flow deposit, with subordinate contribution by fluvial and probably lacustrine sediments. There is no evidence for glacial conditions at the time of formation of the conglomerate, the latter being much older than the latest Proterozoic Varangian glaciation tillites elsewhere in Svalbard. The Slyngfjellet Conglomerate originally filled buried valleys eroded by rivers in block-faulted and uplifted western margin of the Mid-Proterozoic Torellian Basin.
The paper present the concept of stability assessing the of solutions which are construction schedules. Rank have been obtained through the use of task scheduling rules and the application of the KASS software. The aim of the work is the choice of the equivalent solution in terms of the total time of the project. The selected solution optimization task should be characterized by the highest resistance to harmful environmental risk factors. To asses the stability of schedule simulation technique was used.
The image analysis consists in extracting from the information which is available to the observer of the part that is important from the perspective of the investigated process. This process usually accompanies a considerable reduction in the amount of information from the image. In the field of two-phase flows, computer image analysis can be used to determine flow and geometric parameters of flow patterns. This article presents the possibilities of using this method to determine the void fraction, vapor quality, bubble velocity and the geometric dimensions of flow patterns. The use of computer image analysis methods is illustrated by the example of HFE 7100 refrigerant methoxynonafluorobutane condensation in a glass tubular minichannel. The high speed video camera was used for the study, and the films and individual frames received during the study were analyzed.
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of bovine follicular fluid on the survival, morphology and kinetic parameters of bovine thawed spermatozoa under laboratory conditions. Materials and methods: The semen from 5 bulls of proven fertility was incubated in follicular and physiological fluid for 8 hours. During this time assessment using the CASA system was performed. At the beginning and the end of incubation process evaluation by flow cytometry was conducted. Results: The results of the sperm motility assessment showed a significant decrease in the analyzed parameters both in the follicular and physiological fluid. A significant reduction in all parameters characterizing movement properties in the semen incubated in the follicular fluid was found. In the physiological fluid, a similar trend was demonstrated only for the following proper- ties: VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH, BCF. A significant difference was found for both fluids in: VCL (p=0.026), ALH (p=0.038) and LIN (p<0.001) at the beginning of incubation. The results of the plasma membrane integrity assessment showed a statistically significant increase in the percent- age of dying sperm at the 8th hour of the incubation in the follicular fluid. In the case of semen incubation in physiological fluid, a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of live non-damaged cells was found with a simultaneous increase in the subpopulation of undamaged dead cells. Conclusions: Follicular fluid rapidly accelerates the capacitation process. The results of flow cytometry support the hypothesis concerning the ability of follicular fluid to prolong sperm sur- vival.
The flow structure around rising single air bubbles in water and their characteristics, such as equivalent diameter, rising velocity and shape, was investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Shadowgraphy in a transparent apparatus with a volume of 120 mL. The effect of different volumetric gas flow rates, ranging from 4 μL/min to 2 mL/min on the liquid velocity was studied. Ellipsoidal bubbleswere observedwith a rising velocity of 0.25–0.29m/s. It was found that a Kármán vortex street existed behind the rising bubbles. Furthermore, the wake region expanded with increasing volumetric gas flow rate as well as the number and size of the vortices.
One of the basic parameters which describes road traffic is Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT). Its accurate determination is possible only on the basis of data from the continuous measurement of traffic. However, such data for most road sections is unavailable, so AADT must be determined on the basis of short periods of random measurements. This article presents different methods of estimating AADT on the basis of daily traffic (VOL), and includes the traditional Factor Approach, developed Regression Models and Artificial Neural Network models. As explanatory variables, quantitative variables (VOL and the share of heavy vehicles) as well as qualitative variables (day of the week, month, level of AADT, the cross-section, road class, nature of the area, spatial linking, region of Poland and the nature of traffic patterns) were used. Based on comparisons of the presented methods, the Factor Approach was identified as the most useful.
The author investigated traffic flow quality on a new 2+1 long road bypass with an exceptionally high share of heavy vehicles in order to assess rational limits of heavy vehicle shares in traffic flow, dependent on the length of the 2+1 road and the number of passing segments in each direction. This paper presents the results of traffic flow quality analyses through the use of empirical and simulation methods for a single 2+1 road segment with additional passing lanes, as well as for the study of the entire section of the bypass – 2+1 road. Variables include analysis of travel speed distribution, platoon traffic, and amount of passing maneuvers. Results show that large passing demands lead to very high speeds (over 100 km/h) on segments with additional passing lanes. The conclusions include remarks related to the use and operation of 2+1 cross-sections with high shares of heavy vehicles.
Due to unfavorable factors, dangerous conditions occurred in the delivery of electric energy in Poland. This was the most serious incident of its kind since the 1980’s. Such a serious incident raised concern about the safety of the electric power system in the summer and led to the formulation of conclusions for the future. In this article, the author analyses the conditions, which caused that situation. Poland was experiencing a doubt in August 2015, which along with an extremely high maximum daily temperature created remarkably unfavorable conditions for power plants and decreased the capacity of overhead power lines. Such unfavorable metrological conditions occurred not only in Poland, but also in Central-Eastern and Western Europe. It is worth emphasizing that the safety of electric energy delivery was endangered only in Poland. The improper renovation and upkeep policies, as well as unplanned outages in power plants caused a significant decrease of available power in the National Electric Power System. Unscheduled flows between Germany and Poland ruled out the possibility of importing electric energy at such a critical time. The author presents the correlation between the maximum daily air temperature in the sweltering heat and an increase in the demand for electric energy. Overall, unfavorable conditions posed a threat in the delivery of electric energy in Poland. In this article, the author draws attention to the report from the Supreme Audit Office (Najwyższa Izba Kontroli – NIK) from 2014, which predicted such a dangerous situation. Unfortunately, that report remained unnoticed. The author formulated appropriate solutions in order to increase the safety of electric energy delivery in the summer and to prevent such occurrences in the future.
CFD modelling of momentum and heat transfer using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach has been presented for a Kenics static mixer. The simulations were performed with the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15 for turbulent flow of three values of Reynolds number, Re = 5 000, 10 000 and 18 000. The numerical modelling began in the RANS model, where standard k−ε turbulence model and wall functions were used. Then the LES iterations started from the initial velocity and temperature fields obtained in RANS. In LES, the Smagorinsky–Lilly model was used for the sub-grid scale fluctuations along with wall functions for prediction of flow and heat transfer in the near-wall region. The performed numerical study in a Kenics static mixer resulted in highly fluctuating fields of both velocity and temperature. Simulation results were presented and analysed in the form of velocity and temperature contours. In addition, the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient values for the whole insert length were computed and compared with the literature experimental data. Good compliance of the LES simulation results with the experimental correlation was obtained.
The aim of the paper was to develop determination methods of sedimentation characteristics using PIV image anemometry and suspension image analysis. Two methods of the investigation of sed- imentation process based on visualization techniques were developed. In the first one, using PIV method, vector fields of the velocity of settling particles are determined and then average particle velocities are calculated to establish the so called sedimentation dynamics curve. In the second one, the methods of suspension image analysis are utilized to determine the positions of the upper dis- continuity and to establish the sedimentation curve. Laboratory research on the sedimentation of agalit particles suspended in glycerine was conducted (using PIV method). Additionally, industrial research on the sedimentation of water-absorbing granular material used after the first carbonation (carbonation I) was conducted in a sugar factory (using the second method). The research consisted of photographic registration of images of the settling suspension by means of the time-lapse photog- raphy technique. A laboratory study was conducted for four values of the volume concentration of agalit particles in glycerine (0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 vol%). The research methodology, the scope of the conducted measurements and sample research results together with conclusions are presented in this paper.
The paper shows the impact of despatialization on processes of territorial development. The essence of despatialization is the decreasing importance of the spatial factor in the information society, as a result of the use of information and computer technologies, and in particular – the Internet. It creates new challenges for spatial management. Real contact between people and organizations is often replaced with links and information flows, the quality of which is growing and which in many cases eliminate the resistance that spatial distance makes. The multiple effects of this phenomenon modify social relations, at the same time being challenges, but also opportunities to create new tools for managing development policy.
Geometry of plate heat exchangers (PHE) is characterized by a complex net of narrow channels. It enhances turbulence and results in better heat transfer performance. Theoretically, larger number of channels (plates) should proportionally increase the PHE heat power capacity. In practice a nonuniform massflow distribution in consecutive flow channels can significantly deteriorate the overall heat exchange performance. The flow maldistribution is one of the most commonly reported exploitation problems and is present in PHE with and without phase-change flows. The presented paper investigates numerically a flow pattern in PHE with evaporation of R410A refrigerant. Various sizes of PHE are considered. The paper introduces a robust methodology to transform the complicated geometry of a real 3D PHE to its 2D representation. It results in orders of magnitude faster calculations and allows for fast evaluation of different geometrical changes of PHE and their effect on flow maldistribution.
The high pressure die casting technology allows the production of complex casts with good mechanical properties, with high production repeatability within narrow tolerance limits. However, the casts are somewhat porous, which may reduce their mechanical properties. There are several recommendations for reducing the porosity of casts, which are aimed at setting the technological parameters of the casting cycle. One of the primary and important ways to reduce the porosity and air entrapment in the melt is a suitable gating system design. Submitted contribution is devoted to assessing the influence of the runner branching geometry on the air entrapment within the cast volume during the filling phase of the casting cycle. Four variants of the gating system for a particular cast are compared with different design of main runner branching. The initial design is based on a real gating system where the secondary runner is connected to the main runner at an angle of 90 °. The modified designs are provided with a continuous transition of the main runner into the secondary ones, with the change in the branching runner radius r1 = 15 mm, r2 = 25 mm and r3 = 35 mm. The air entrapment in the melt is assessed within the cast volume behind the cores, which have been evaluated as a critical points with respect to further mechanical treatment. When designing the structural modification of geometry it was assumed that by branch changing using the radius value r3 = 35 mm, the melt flows fluently, and thus the value of the entrapped air in the volume of the cast will be the lowest. This assumption was disproved. The lowest values of entrapped air in the melt were found in the casts with runner transition designed with radius r1 = 15 mm. The conclusion of the contribution explains the causes of this phenomenon and from a designing point of view it presents proposal for measures to reduce the entrapment of the air in casts.
The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the solidification of a cylindrical shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity by liquid metal and feeding the casting through the riser during its solidification, are presented in the paper. Mutual dependence of thermal and flow phenomena were taken into account because have an essential influence on solidification process. The effect of the riser shape on the effectiveness of feeding of the solidifying casting was determined. In order to obtain the casting without shrinkage defects, an appropriate selection of riser shape was made, which is important for foundry practice. Numerical calculations of the solidification process of system consisting of the casting and the conical or cylindrical riser were carried out. The velocity fields have been obtained from the solution of momentum equations and continuity equation, while temperature fields from solving the equation of heat conductivity containing the convection term. Changes in thermo-physical parameters as a function of temperature were considered. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the problem.
Gas-liquid two-phase flow in minichannels has been the subject of increased research interest in the past few years. Evaluation, however, of today's state of the art regarding hydrodynamics of flow in minichannels shows significant differences between existing test results. In the literature there is no clear information regarding: defining the boundary between minichannels and conventional channels, labelling of flow patterns. The review of literature on the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid flow in minichannels shows that, despite the fact that many research works have been published, the problem of determining the effect of diameter of the minichannel on the hydrodynamics of the flow is still at an early stage. Therefore, the paper presents the results of research concerning determination of flow regime map for the vertical upward flow in minichannels. The research is based on a comprehensive analysis of the literature data and on the research that has been carried out. Such approach to the mentioned above problems concerning key issues of the two-phase flow in minichannels allowed to determine ranges of occurrence of flow structures with a relatively high accuracy.
This paper reports the results of research involving observations of flow patterns during air-oil-water three-phase flow through a vertical pipe with an internal diameter of 0.03 m and a length of 3 m. The conductometric method based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of the gas-liquid-liquid system was used to evaluate the flow patterns. In the studies, a set of eight probes spaced concentrically in two tube sections (four probes per each) with a spacing of 0.015 m were used. The paper presents a theoretical description of the test method and the analysis of the measurement results for air-oil-water multiphase flow system. Results of this study indicate that the developed method of characterizing the voltage of the gas-liquid-liquid system can be an important tool supporting other methods to identify flow patterns, including visual observation.
The aim of this paper is to study the applicability of the theory of micropolar ﬂuids to modelling and calculating ﬂows in microchannels depending on the geometrical dimension of the ﬂow ﬁeld. First, it will be shown that if the characteristic linear dimension of the ﬂow becomes appropriately large, the equations describing the micropolar ﬂuid ﬂow can be transformed into Navier-Stokes equations. Next, Poiseuille ﬂows in a microchannel is studied in detail. In particular, the maximal cross-sectional size of the channel for which the micropolar eﬀects of the ﬂuid ﬂow become important will be established. The experimentally determined values of rheological constants of the ﬂuid have been used in calculations.
The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of values specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas very-high-viscosity liquid flow in vertical pipes. An experimental method was provided, and the findings were presented and analysed for selected values which characterise the two-phase flow.
The paper presents results of experimental investigation of microchannel boiling flow which was controlled by dielectrophoretic (DEP) restrictor. The DEP restrictor was connected to the microchannel liquid supply tube. Operation of DEP restrictor influenced the flow rate at the microchannel inlet. Resulting changes in flow structures and vapour content along the microchannel were observed and analysed with a high-speed video camera. Video recordings were synchronised with measurements of differential pressure between the channel inlet and outlet. It was found that it is possible to change average void fraction in the microchannel by switching on and off the voltage applied to the restrictor electrodes. However, to achieve significant variation of the void fraction, applied voltage should be of the order of 2000 Vpp. The voltage switching also generates oscillations of the differential pressure. The amplitude of these oscillations is proportional to the voltage magnitude, reaching 35 Pa for 2400 Vpp.