The Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, one of the most robust centers for research on food and its improved quality. This year, the Olsztyn-based Institute celebrates the 30th anniversary of its establishment.
Ionizing radiation applied on food eliminates harmful microorganisms, prevents sprouting and delays ripening. All methods for detection of irradiated food are based on physical, chemical, biological or microbiological changes caused by the treatment with ionizing radiation. When minerals are exposed to ionizing radiation, they accumulate radiation energy and store it in the crystal lattice, by which some electrons remain trapped in the lattice. When these minerals are exposed to optical stimulation, trapped electrons are released. The phenomenon, called optically stimulated luminescence or photostimulated luminescence, occurs when released electrons recombine with holes from luminescence centers in the lattice, resulting in emission of light with certain wavelengths. In this paper, the results of measurements performed on seven different samples of herbs and spices are presented. In order to make a comparison between luminescence signals from samples treated with different doses, unirradiated samples are treated with Co-60 with doses of 1 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy. In all cases it was shown that the higher the applied dose, the higher the luminescence signal.
During marine ecological surveys conducted by Polish expeditions in South Spitsbergen area 14 fish species were collected. The length frequency, the diet and some other ecological informations are presented for the most common species.
During austral summer phytoplankton is the main component of food of E. superba postlarval stages. Diatomeae: Thalassiosira spp., Nitzschia spp. and tiny Pennatae constitue 98% of all consumed food particles. 91% of algae consumed were of 8—40 μm, and their mean size is 21.4 μm. The mean amount of algae found in of Euphausia superba was about 1700 per individual. The differences in species composition and the size of algae eaten by juvenes, preadult and adult individuals decrease the food competition between particular age groups of E. superba.
This study contributes to the knowledge of morphology, biology and ecology of Euphausia crystallorophias. The structure of the filtratory apparatus and analysis of the stomach contents are described. Among 41 identified algae taxa 40 were diatoms. Benthic algae, numbering as many as 12 taxa constituted a high percentage in the total of food content, which may indicate that this species feeds near the bottom in the relatively shallow shelf-waters.
Sewage and solid waste can be a valuable source of materials used directly or indirectly in manufacturing of usable products. These processes are associated with elimination of pollutants from liquid and solid wastes. The best-known methods of waste management are production of biogas and composting. This paper focuses on the possibility of obtaining biomass as a source of protein feed (whose value, in terms of the composition of aminoacids and microelements, is comparable with conventional feed, e.g. soymeal, bonemeal or fishmeal). Sewage components for bacterial, fungal, algal and vascular plants’ culture are characterized as a source of protein feed. Methods of industrial scale production of enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases that have broad applications in various industries, are discussed. Development perspectives of inexpensive methods of usable products from waste production are showed. Interdisciplinary nature of presented issues, which requires cooperation of specialists in biology, chemistry and technology, is emphasized.
Anaphylaxis is an increasing problem in public health. Th e food allergens (mainly milk, eggs, and peanuts) are the most frequent cause of anaphylaxis in children and youth. In order to defi ne the cause of anaphylaxis, skin tests, the determination of the concentration of specifi c IgE in the blood and basophil activation test are conducted. In vitro tests are preferred due to the risk of allergic response during in vivo tests. Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is an additional tool in allergology, recommended in the third level of diagnostics when there are diagnostic doubts aft er the above mentioned tests have been carried out. The paper presents 3 cases of patients with anaphylactic response, and the application of CRD in these patients helped in planning the treatment. Patient 1 is a 4-year-old boy with diagnosed atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma reported an anaphylactic shock at the age of seven months caused by cow’s milk and the exacerbation of bronchial asthma aft er eating some fruit. Patient 2 is a 35-year-old woman who has had anaphylactic shock three times: in June 2015, 2016, and 2017 and associates these episodes with the consumption of dumplings with a caramel, bun, and the last episode took place during physical exertion few hours aft er eating waffl e. Patient 3 is a 26-year-old man with one-time loss of consciousness after eating mixed nuts and drinking beer. CRD off ers the possibility to conduct a detailed diagnostic evaluation of patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction.
Two West Spitsbergen fiords, Hornsund (77°N) and Kongsfjorden (79°N) were compared with respect to their hydrology and zooplankton occurrence on the base of two summer surveys made in 1987 and 1988. Both fiords were found to be influenced by four types of masses: Atlantic Waters, Intermediate Atlantic Waters, Local Waters and Brackish Surface Waters, Intermediate Atlantic Waters, Local Waters and Brackish Surface Waters. The amount of fresh water in both fiords reached up to 10% of water volume of the uppermost water layers. Hornsund in August 1987 was richer in mesozooplankton biomass than Kongsfjorden in 1988. Estimated energie value of pelagic prey of marine birds was 180-500 KJ/100 m3 in Hornsund, and 130-200 in Kongsfjorden. Two major plankton communities were found in both fiords: Pseudocalanus community in the inner fiord basins and Calanus dominated community in the outer areas of the fiords. Plankton occurrence in fiords was not linked directly with the temperature — salinity patterns but rather with dynamic phenomena like upwellings and wind drift of surface waters.
This article explores caring through feeding as an important aspect of transnational family life, and analyzes the practices connected to sending food products home, supervising what the family eats, and changing consumption patterns. It focuses on Filipino migrants to the United States who maintain transnational ties with their families. With a history of colonial encounter, the United States has been a popular migration destination, and has also strongly inﬂuenced food consumption. The study shows the ways in which packages from abroad (balikbayan boxes) express love and care, and how they allow migrants to control food consumption of the family in the country of origin. By looking at the goods the immigrants put in the packages, and the way these are received, it is possible to uncover the dynamics of love, care, and intimacy in transnational families, which often translate into power, tensions, and control among family-members. The article analyses how food products sent in the packages work, bringing with them new ideas and practices, creating imaginaries of migration, and building the social prestige of the immigrant. Using the concept of “social remittances”, the article also shows the changing patterns of food consumption in the Philippines.
The food and foraging strategy of fifteen species of seabirds and sea mammals from two high Arctic fjords were analysed. One of the fjords, Kongsfjord, is strongly influenced by warm waters from the Atlantic , while Hornsund is of a more Arctic character. Prey species in the Atlantic waters were more diverse (82 species and 16 functional groups) compared to those of Arctic waters (67 prey species and 14 functional groups). The consumption of top predators from Hornsund in the peak season of July was estimated at 2.86*106 MJ, while that in Kongsfjord was 1.35*106 MJ. For the analysed function of the ecosystem (the transfer of energy to the top trophic levels) the specific character of prey species is of key importance and not the diversity, abundance or biomass per se. Lower species diversity and biomass in Arctic waters is compensated for by the occurrence of larger individuals of these species, which permits top predators to prey directly on lower trophic levels.
Food additives, especially E numbers, are widely perceived by consumers as artificial and harmful. However, the fact is that they are an essential ingredient in numerous products, many have “natural” origins and none of them pose a risk to health.
The production of domestic protein for feed in Poland is insufficient. The import of feed raw materials, especially soybean, which is genetically modified (GM) is necessity. In 2016, Poland imported about 2 million tonnes of GM soybean. In Poland was introduced a ban for using and production of GM feed (Law – animal feed from 2006). This ban has already been suspended few times, mainly due to the fact, that the complete replacement of imported GM soybean meal with other components was impossible. The Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development appointed “Team for alternative sources of protein”, responsible for finding solutions that will impact on reducing imports and will increase the share of domestic sources of protein in animal feed. To achieve this aim research are needed to indicate plants and their possibilities for using. The aim of the article is to analyse selected feed components such as: soybean and rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and oilcakes. This analysis concerns the area of cultivation of soybean, rapeseed and sunflower, purchase costs of meals and oilcakes, properties of these components and foreign trade in Poland.
Spectrometry, especially spectrophotometry, is getting more and more often the method of choice not only in laboratory analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the off-laboratory identification and testing of physical properties of various products, in particular - of various organic mixtures including food products and ingredients. Specialised spectrophotometers, called spectrophotometric analysers, are designed for such applications. This paper is on the state of the art in the domain of data processing in spectrophotometric analysers of food (including beverages). The following issues are covered: methodological background of food analysis, physical and metrological principles of spectrophotometry, the role of measurement data processing in spectrophotometry. General considerations are illustrated with examples, predominantly related to wine and olive oil analysis.
The relatively limited application of lean in the food process industries has been attributed to the unique characteristics of the food sector i.e. short shelf-life, heterogeneous raw materials, and seasonality. Moreover, barriers such as large and inflexible machinery, long setup time, and resource complexity, has limited the implementation and impact of lean practices in process industries in general. Contrary to the expectations in the literature, we bring in this paper a successful experience of lean implementation in a company of the food-processing sector. By focusing on two lean tools (VSM and SMED), the company reduced changeover time by 34%, and increased the production capacity of the main production line by 11%. This improvement enabled the company to avoid the use of temporary workers by extending the worktime of its workforce during peak months. Moreover, the reduction of setup time avoided the use of large lot size in production, which, in turn, reduced the total cycle time of production and the incidence of quality problems.
The consumption of cereal contaminated with mycotoxins poses a serious health risk for humans and animals. The present work aims to evaluate the presence of mycotoxins in talkan, a cereal-based food commonly consumed by the Turkic population. The presence of mycotoxins was investigated in a total of 50 samples obtained from Kazakhstan. After a preliminary screening using various ELISA kits, mycotoxins were confirmed and quantified by HPLC-MS/MS method. More than 28% of the samples were positive for at least one mycotoxin. The calculated probably daily intake for adults and children was 20% above the tolerable daily intake for aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol, while it was above 100% for zearalenone, indicating a high risk for the Kazakh population. A total of 12 samples exhibited concentrations above the European maximum level for ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, however, these values were within the limits established by the Russia-Kazakhstan-Belarus Customs Union (TR CU 015/2011).
We discus legal status of plants obtained using NBT: whether they are to be treated as GMOs or not. The conclusion may have a negative impact on the development of research on them and their practical use. The problem of the application of provisions on GMOs in relation to the products of some of the NBT has been the subject of the decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in Case C-528/16 – this topic is analyzed in details.
This paper makes a contribution to food research and studies of mobility through analyzing food exchange in a translocal context. Furthermore, by focusing on Muslim women’s practices in the North Caucasus it also contributes to gender studies of post-socialism, which, for the most part, are based on the ﬁeld material from the non-Muslim part of the Russian population. Anthropologists have viewed social changes through the lens of various food items or consumption patterns. I argue that adding a mobility aspect to the research centered on food can help us discover social changes and practices that may otherwise remain unnoticed. I will show that studying the dynamics of food circulation and human mobility may serve as a good starting point towards the broader study of societies. Thus, by taking people originating from the Shiri village in Daghestan as an example, I look into channels of food sharing to analyze the nature of reproduction of social relations within communities and the cultural entanglements created by the circulation of goods. Furthermore, the analysis of their vernacular practices reveals the existence of informal exchange networks, in particular the ones secured by and for women. Through these networks, food and favors are exchanged, and social bonds and feelings of obligation are created and preserved. Further analysis also reveals social changes connected with mountain abandonment, in particular the growing awareness of the weakening of tukhum (lineage) and village ties. These dynamics reﬂect recent changes in the Daghestani society that are connected with increased mobility and the processes of (re)islamization.
Spectrophotometry is an analytical technique of increasing importance for the food industry, applied i.a. in the quantitative assessment of the composition of mixtures. Since the absorbance data acquired by means of a spectrophotometer are highly correlated, the problem of calibration of a spectrophotometric analyzer is, as a rule, numerically ill-conditioned, and advanced data-processing methods must be frequently applied to attain an acceptable level of measurement uncertainty. This paper contains a description of four algorithms for calibration of spectrophotometric analyzers, based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of matrices, as well as the results of their comparison - in terms of measurement uncertainty and computational complexity - with a reference algorithm based on the estimator of ordinary least squares. The comparison is carried out using an extensive collection of semi-synthetic data representative of trinary mixtures of edible oils. The results of that comparison show the superiority of an algorithm of calibration based on the truncated SVD combined with a signal-to-noise ratio used as a criterion for the selection of regularisation parameters - with respect to other SVD-based algorithms of calibration.
The future of food security in Africa is being severely threatened due to an exponential increase in population, which is almost three times the increase of food production. Maize production is constrained by stem borers which cause significant yield losses. Yield losses can be further compounded by higher temperatures due to climate changes, which are expected to increase the population of maize stem borers. While several methods have been employed in stem borer management, there is still significant damage caused by maize stem borers. This necessitates better control methods including the adoption of recent biotechnological advancement in RNA interference (RNAi) technology. This review highlights evidence of an increase in the stem borer population as well as the foreseen decline in maize production worldwide due to the effects of climatic changes. Furthermore, we have drawn attention to improved methods that have been used to control stem borers in maize production as well as a reluctant acceptance of traditional biotechnology in Africa. Finally, we suggest the application of alternative RNA interference techniques to breed maize for efficient pest control in order to achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable maize production.