The paper presents the results of analyzes of gases emitted during exposure to high temperature foundry molding sands, where binders are organic resins. As a research tool has been used special gas chromatograph designed to identify odorous compounds including the group of alkanes.
The properties, superior calorific value (SCV) and the compressibility factor (z), of 77 natural gas (NG) samples are calculated from two different calibration approaches of gas chromatography, based on ISO 6974-2. The method A uses an analytical curve with seven points that the best adjust is confirmed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); it is required when the composition of the natural gas varies. The method B uses a single point calibration, with an allowed tolerance between the calibration gas mixture and sample mole fraction, so it is used to analyze constant natural gas streams. From natural gas composition analyzed by both methods, exceeding the method B allowed tolerance; SCV, z and its uncertainties are calculated and compared. The results show that all samples that comply with Brazilian legislation can be analyzed by method B, because there are no metrological differences in terms of SCV and z, even though the allowed tolerance has been exceeded. This simplified methodology minimizes operator exposure, besides saving about US$ 50,000.00 per chromatograph.
Five cosmetics wastewater samples were treated by Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) assisted by coagulation. Different aluminum based coagulants were used: (Al2(SO4)3, Al 1019, Al 3010, Al 3030, Al 3035, PAX 16 and PAX 19). The raw wastewater COD values were in the range 285-2124 mg/l. The efficiency of DAF depended on different coagulants and production profi le of factory. COD removal was varied from 11.1 to 77.7%. The efficiency of coagulants was similar during treatment of particular sample. The best results were obtained with Al2(SO4)3 and for sample 5 - lotions and shampoos production. The wastewater from UV fi lter creams production (sample 4) was resistant to treatment by DAF regardless of used coagulant. HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis can be a confirmation of DAF effectiveness
This paper aims at presenting the possibilities of applying gas chromatography for the determination of pharmaceutical residues in different matrices. Section one of the study underscores the environmental advantages of employing GC for such analyses. Section two presents the innovative methods for determining pharmaceuticals in the environment. The last section discusses the results of the analysis of the GC and GC-MS market in Poland. According to the literature data, the described methods were applied for the analysis of real samples: wastewaters, surface waters, soil samples. The samples were collected from the Pomerania region and the Gulf of Gdańsk. The pharmaceuticals were determined in various environmental samples. The highest concentrations were found in raw wastewater, medium – in a treated wastewater, and the lowest – in surface water. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were: ibuprofen, paracetamol, diclofenac and naproxen, all belonging to NSAIDs. Furthermore, the results of the study of the Polish GC market indicate that a very limited number of entities are currently using chromatographic techniques, and pharmaceutical residues tests are exceptions, mainly due to the lack of the legal requirements in this field and the lack of own laboratories.
Many species of Trichoderma produce secondary metabolites such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that reduce plant diseases and promote their growth. In this work we evaluated the antagonistic effects of VOCs released by eight strains of two Trichoderma species against Pyrenophora teres Drechsler, the causal agent of barley net blotch. Antagonism was estimated based on the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition according to the confronted cultures method. VOCs extraction and identification were performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, through different methodologies for VOCs emitted by antagonists and pathogens alone or when confronted. VOCs produced by all Trichoderma strains inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen in a range of 3 to 32%, showing weak and unpigmented mycelia with vacuolization. In addition, P. teres stimulated the release of VOCs by both Trichoderma species. The major groups of VOCs detected were sesquiterpenes, followed by diterpenes, terpenoids and eight-carbon compounds. This is the first report about characterization of volatiles emitted by Trichoderma in the presence of P. teres.