Cardiac Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a commonly used clinical procedure for treating many cardiac arrhythmias. However, the efficacy of RF ablation may be limited by two factors: small ventricular lesions and impedance rise, leading to coagulum formation and desiccation of tissue. In this paper, a high frequency (HF) energy ablation system operating at 27.12 MHz based on an automated load matching system was developed. A HF energy matched probe associated to the automated impedance matching device ensures optimal transfer of the energy to the load. The aim of this study was to evaluate this energy for catheter ablation of the atrioventricular junction. In vivo studies were performed using 10 sheep to characterize the lesions created with the impedance matching system. No cardiac perforation was noted. No thrombus was observed at the catheter tip. Acute lesions ranged from 3 to 45 mm in diameter (mean ±SD = 10.3±10) and from 1 to 15 mm in depth (6.7±3.9), exhibiting a close relationship between HF delivered power level and lesion size. Catheter ablation using HF current is feasible and appears effective in producing a stable AV block when applied at the AV junction and large myocardial lesions at ventricular sites.
A contactless energy transmission system is essential to supply onboard systems of electromagnetically levitated vehicles without physical contact to the guide rail. One of the possibilities to realise a contactless power supply (CPS) is by integrating the primary actuator into the guide rail of an electromagnetic guiding system (MGS). The secondary actuator is mounted on the elevator car. During the energy transmission, load dependent non-linear losses occur in the guide rail. The additional losses, which are caused by the leakage flux penetrating into the guide rail, cannot be modelled using the classical approach of iron losses in the equivalent circuit of a transformer, which is a constant parallel resistance to the mutual inductance. This paper introduces an approach for modelling the load dependent non-linear losses occurring in the guide rail using additional variable discrete circuit elements.