The development of the crystallographic texture in copper subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) by means of high pressure torsion (HPT) and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was experimentally investigated and analyzed by means of computer modelling. It was demonstrated, that the texture developed in HPT and ECAP Cu is characterized by significant inhomogeneity. Therefore, the analysis focused on the study of the texture distribution and its inhomogeneity in sample space. The detailed texture analysis, based on the X-ray diffraction technique, led to important observations concerning the localization of the maximum texture gradient and the regularity of its changes related to the parameters of the applied deformation. The obtained results provided the basis for certain conclusions concerning complex texture changes in SPD Cu.
The paper presents test results for the assessment of the tracer content in a three-component (green peas, sorghum, maize) feed mixture that is based on the fluorescent method. The homogeneity of mixtures was determined on the basis of the maize content (as the key component), which was treated with fluorescent substance: tinopal, rhodamine B, uranine and eosin. The key components were wet-treated with fluorescent substances with different concentrations. Feed components were mixed in a vertical funnel-flow mixer. 10 samples were collected from each mixed batch. Samples were placed in a chamber equipped with UV light and, then, an image recorded as BMP file was generated. The image was analysed by means of the software programme Patan. On the basis of the analyses conducted, data on the maize content marked with a fluorescent marker were obtained. Additionally, the content of the key component was determined in a conventional manner – using an analytical scale. Results indicate the possibility of using this method for homogeneity assessment of the three-component grain mixture. From these tests, fluorescent substances that can be applied in the case of maize as a key component, together with their minimum concentrations, were identified: tinopal 0.3%, rhodamine B 0.001%.
Presented study aimed to determine metals distribution on the quartz fiber filters surface coated with particulate matter by using high and low-volume samplers. The distribution pattern was tested using two different sub-sampling schemes. Each sub-sample was mineralized in the nitric acid in a microwave oven. An analysis was performed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization GF-AAS technique, and the determined elements were: As, Cd, Pb and Ni. A validation of the analytical procedure was carried out using NIES 28 Urban Aerosols standard reference material. It was assumed that metal is distributed uniformly if its normalized concentrations on a single sub-sample is within ±15% of the mean concentration over the whole filter. The normalized concentrations values exceed this range, indicating a non-homogenous metals distribution. There were no statistically significant differences in metals concentrations between particular sub-samples in the function of its position along the filters diameter.
In the paper a method for correction of heating non-homogeneity applied in defect detection with the use of active thermography is presented. In the method an approximation of thermal background with second- and third-order surfaces was used, what made it possible to remove partially the background. In the paper the simulation results obtained with the abovementioned method are presented. An analysis of the influence of correction of heating non-homogeneity on the effectiveness of defect detection is also carried out. The simulations are carried out for thermograms obtained on the basis of experiments on a test sample with simulated defects, made of a material of low thermal diffusivity.