The attempt was made to describe the dynamics of water masses in the southern part of the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait in the time period from December 1983 to January 1984. The dynamic topography at the surface (referred to 500 dbar surface) allowed to define the eastward flow of water in the Bransfield Strait and to observe, in the same region, the presence of a rather weak counter-current of the Weddell Sea origin. In the Drake Passage, a general north-eastern direction of water flow of the Bellingshausen Sea was found. In the Bransfield Strait, as well as in the Drake Passage, the relative velocities of geostrophic flow were low: 0.22 and 0.06 m s-1 respectively. The analysis of Rossby and eddy numbers and Rossby radius made it possible to regionalize the dynamic phenomena but could not be fully used for their classification.
The paper focuses on the modelling of bromate formation. An axial dispersion model was proposed to integrate the non-ideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions fromthe Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon (TFG) ozone decaymodelwith direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and its reactionswith aqueous bromine. To elucidate the role of ammonia an additional set of reactions leading to bromamine formation, oxidation and disproportionation was incorporated in the kinetic model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to obtain information on reliability of the reaction rate constants used and to simplify the model.
Validation results of a theoretical model that describes the formation of bromate during ozonation of bromide-containing natural waters are presented. An axial dispersion model integrating the nonideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions from the Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon ozone decay model with direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and reactions of dissolved organics and aqueous bromine was verified. Themodel was successfully validated with results obtained both at a laboratory and a full scale. Its applicability to different water supply systems was approved.
Experiments on a confined fluidized bed system with various shapes of particles have been presented in the paper. Its influence on hydrodynamic properties in the whole range of gas velocity has been analysed. Relations allowing calculation of the Richardson-Zaki-type equation coefficients, including description of inter-particle void and gas pressure drop in such systems have been determined. Necessary condition for confined fluidization of non-spherical coarse particles has also been determined.
In this paper we present the numerical simulation-based design of a new microfluidic device concept for electrophoretic mobility and (relative) concentration measurements of dilute mixtures. The device enables stationary focusing points for each species, where the locally applied pressure driven flow (PDF) counter balances the species electrokinetic velocity. The axial location of the focusing point, along with the PDF flowrate and applied electric field reveals the electrokinetic mobility of each species. Simultaneous measurement of the electroosmotic mobility of an electrically neutral specie can be utilized to calculate the electrophoretic mobility of charged species. The proposed device utilizes constant sample feeding, and results in time-steady measurements. Hence, the results are independent of the initial sample distribution and flow dynamics. In addition, the results are insensitive to the species diffusion for large Peclet number flows (Pe > 400), enabling relative concentration measurement of each specie in the dilute mixture.
The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of values specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas very-high-viscosity liquid flow in vertical pipes. An experimental method was provided, and the findings were presented and analysed for selected values which characterise the two-phase flow.
The considerations presented in the paper relate to one of the most intriguing phenomena, which is the development of oil whirls and oil whips in rotors with journal bearings. This eﬀect is sometimes referred to as ﬂutter, as its origin is in some relation to self-exciting vibrations of the system. Despite the fact that the ﬂutter has been an object of investigation in numerous research centres all over the world, its nature has not been suﬃciently recognized yet. The present paper delivers a description of particular phases of development of the hydrodynamic instability and proposes diagnostic determinants for this state. The object of investigations also included bearings with hybrid lubrication and siphon pockets in the oil gaps. The answer has been received to the question whether the self-exciting vibrations in rotating machines can be avoided, or reduced by means of additional oil supply having the form of siphon oil.
This mini-review reports the recent advances in the hydrodynamic techniques for formation of bubbles of gas in liquid in microfluidic systems. Systems comprising ducts that have widths of the order of 100 micrometers produce suspensions of bubbles with narrow size distributions. Certain of these systems have the ability to tune the volume fraction of the gaseous phase over the whole range from zero to one. The rate of flow of the liquids through the devices determines the mechanism of formation of the bubbles from break-up controlled by the rate of flow of the liquid (at low capillary numbers, and in the presence of strong confinement by the walls of the microchannels), to dynamics dominated by inertial effects (at high Weber numbers). The region of transition between these two regimes exhibits nonlinear behaviours, with period doubling cascades and irregular bubbling as prominent examples. Microfluidic systems provide new and uniquely controlled methods for generation of bubbles, and offer potential applications in micro-flow chemical processing, synthesis of materials, and fluidic optics.
Based on hydrodynamic data, Kato-Wen and Kunii-Levenspiel bubbling-bed model parameters, supplemented with assumptions characteristic for tested confined fluidised bed, were analysed. The calculated bubble diameters and the bed composition proved essential influence of inter-particle space of packed compacted component onto fluidisation character. The usability of the conducted model analysis was also confirmed. Finally, it can be concluded that Kunii-Levenspiel and Kato- Wen models with characteristic assumptions (for the tested bed) can be applied for calculation of the confined fluidised bed layer porosity. Discrepancies of ε f value, determined on the basis of the above mentioned bubbling-bed models do not exceed 8% of the error. The model parameters obtained from the matching the model relations to experimental data εf = f(u0) allow an analysis of the fluidisation character as well as gas velocity regime and the fluidised bed structural composition identification. A description of the regime of the process in which confined fluidised bed is characterised with an increase of mass and heat transfer rate is also possible using relation (17) derived in the present study.
The study of liquid crystalline assemblies, with an emphasis on biological phenomena, is now accessible using newly developed microdevices integrated with X-ray analysis capability. Many biological systems can be described in terms of gradients, mixing, and confinement, all of which can be mimicked with the use of appropriate microfluidic designs. The use of hydrodynamic focusing creates well-defined mixing conditions that vary depending on parameters such as device geometry, and can be quantified with finite element modelling.We describe experiments in which geometry and strain rate induce finite changes in liquid crystalline orientation. We also demonstrate the online supramolecular assembly of lipoplexes. The measurement of lipoplex orientation as a function of flow velocity allows us to record a relaxation process of the lipoplexes, as evidenced by a remarkable 4-fold azimuthal symmetry. All of these processes are accessible due to the intentional integration of design elements in the microdevices.
The object of investigation was the one-strand tundish with flow control device such as gas permeable barrier (GPB). The aim of this flow control device was to activate the motion of liquid steel in the tundish longitudinal axis region. Computer simulation of the liquid steel flow and argon behaviour in isothermal turbulent motion conditions was done using the Ansys-Fluent computer program. For the validation of the hydrodynamic patterns obtained from computer simulations, a isothermal tundish glass model was used. Tundish glass model enables the recording of the visualization of fluid medium motion through the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Based on computer simulations, the liquid steel flow path lines in the tundish with GPB was obtained. For explain the hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in the tundish working space, the Buoyancy number has been calculated.
Diagnostics and decomposition of atmospheric disturbances in a planar flow are considered in this work. The study examines a situation in which the stationary equilibrium temperature of a gas may depend on the vertical coordinate due to external forces. The relations connecting perturbations are analytically established. These perturbations specify acoustic and entropy modes in an arbitrary stratified gas affected by a constant mass force. The diagnostic relations link acoustic and entropy modes, and are independent of time. Hence, they provide an ability to decompose the total vector of perturbations into acoustic and non-acoustic (entropy) parts, and to establish the distribution of energy between the sound and entropy modes, uniquely at any instant. The total energy of a flow is hence determined in its parts which are connected with acoustic and entropy modes. The examples presented in this work consider the equilibrium temperature of a gas, which linearly depends on the vertical coordinate. Individual profiles of acoustic and entropy parts for some impulses are illustrated with plots.
Hydrodynamic three tilting-pad journal bearing is analyzed in the paper. It is shown that, when assembling that type of not controlled bearing, it is impossible to obtain a small clearance between the pad and the journal at high frequency of journal rotation. In a static state, i.e. when the journal is immobile, such a bearing should be assembled with a large interference between the pads and the journal in order to guarantee the small clearance at rotation. At start, when the hydrodynamic lubricating wedges between the pads and journal are absent, the bearing would work with dry friction, resulting in quick wear of pads and high load of the drive motor. Apart of that, it is impossible to control the power consumption and temperature regime neither for idle nor for working rotation of the journal. The proposed automatic control gives a possibility to regulate the clearance between the pads and the journal by measuring and controlling the axial force of the pad load, and in such a way to improve work conditions of the bearing.