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Abstract

The use of lactoferrin (LF) and/or lactobacillus sp. (LB) to improve animal health and production has increased recently. However, information regarding the immune-modulatory role of LB supplementations either alone or in combination with LF in sheep remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the immune modulating properties and the antioxidant activity of supplementing commercially available LF and/or LB in healthy lambs. For this reason, twenty-four apparently healthy Ossimi lambs were used. After three weeks of acclimatization, the lambs were randomly allocated to four equal-sized groups and assigned to receive one of the following supplements: LB at a dose of ~ 1 g active ingredient/head (group 1), LF at a dose rate of 0.5 gm /head (group 2), a combination of both treatments using the same dosing regimens (group 3), and (group 4) received only 10 mL of isotonic saline and was considered as a control group. All supplements were given orally twice daily for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected from each lamb before starting the experiment (T0) and two weeks (T15), and four weeks (T30) after giving supplements for hematological examinations, serum biochemical analyses, and RT-PCR assays. Our findings demonstrated that lambs receiving LB showed statistically significant (P<0.05) higher values of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and lysozyme activity than those receiving LF. In contrast, lambs that received LF had significantly (P< 0.05) higher values of serum catalase, nitric oxide and GSH with a significantly lower MDA level compared with those supplemented with LB. A combination of LF and LB supplementation elicited maximal up-regulation of Tollip, TLR4, IL-5, and IL-6 gene expression compared with other groups. The results suggest that bovine LF and or LB could be used as useful nutritional supplements to support the immune system in healthy lambs.
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Abstract

GNSS systems are susceptible to radio interference despite then operating in a spread spectrum. The commerce jammers power up to 2 watts that can block the receiver function at a distance of up to 15 kilometers in free space. Two original methods for GNSS receiver testing were developed. The first method is based on the usage of a GNSS simulator for generation of the satellite signals and a vector signal RF generator for generating different types of interference signals. The second software radio method is based on a software GNSS simulator and a signal processing in Matlab. The receivers were tested for narrowband CW interference, FM modulated signal and chirp jamming signals and scenarios. The signal to noise ratio usually drops down to 27 dBc-Hz while the jamming to signal ratio is different for different types of interference. The chirp signal is very effective. The jammer signal is well propagated in free space while in the real mobile urban and suburban environment it is usually strongly attenuated.
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Abstract

Both sarcoidosis and primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) are multisystem disorders of unknown etiology, which share certain clinical features, making the diff erential diagnosis a real challenge in clinical practice. Several published case reports and case series have posed the question as to whether there is a real association — mimicry between the two diseases or it is just coincidence. We attempt, aft er systematic and comprehensive research of the relevant published literature, to present all those data, clinical or paraclinical, which could be useful in the diagnostic approach and the distinguishment of the two diseases. It is certain that, besides the classic diagnostic methods, emerging is the role of immunology and genetics on this direction, although not established yet.
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