ll was proved that the activity of basic proteinases (pH 8.3) and acid proteinases (pH 4.0) of the Antarctic krill increases exponentially in spring-summer season (September-December); the activity of the first ones is 6 times higher and increases more rapidly. The positive relation between the proteolytic activity and the degree of gut filling of krill was also evidenced. The lack of high activity of acid proteinases in early spring does not support the suggestions of Ikeda and Dixon (1982) that during Antarctic winter krill takes energy from the autoproteolysis of own body proteins.
Flow fields could be of great interest in the study of sound propagation in aeroengines. For ducts with rigid boundaries, the fluid-resonant category may contribute significantly to unwanted noise. An understanding of the multi-modal propagation of acoustic waves in ducts is of practical interest for use in the control of noise in, for example, aero-engines, automotive exhaust and heating or ventilation systems. The purpose of our experiments was to test the acoustic energy transmission of duct modes based on studies carried out by the sound intensity technique. Sound intensity patterns in circular duct are discussed of modal energy analysis with particular reference to proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition. The authors try to justify some advantages of the sound intensity experimental research in this area. In the paper, the wide-band sound signal propagated from source approximated with loudspeaker in hard-walled duct is imaged using a sound intensity - based approach. For a simple duct geometry, the sound intensity field is examined visually and by performing a modal decomposition greater insight into the acoustic structures is obtained. The image of sound intensity fields below and above “cut-off” frequency region are found to compare acoustic modes which might resonate in duct.
The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, some basic notions on acoustic field intensity and its measurement are shortly recalled. Then, the equipment and the measurement procedure used in the sound intensity in the performed research study are described. The second goal is to present details of the design of the engineered 3D intensity probe, as well as the algorithms developed and applied for that purpose. Results of the intensity probe measurements along with the calibration procedure are then contained and discussed. Comparison between the engineered and the reference commercial probe confirms that the designed construction is applicable to the sound field intensity measurements with a sufficient effectiveness.
This study was carried out on the background of Sutong Bridge project based on fracture mechanics, aiming at analyzing the growth mechanism of fatigue cracks of a bridge under the load of vehicles. Stress intensity factor (SIF) can be calculated by various methods. Three steel plates with different kinds of cracks were taken as the samples in this study. With the combination of finite element analysis software ABAQUS and the J integral method, SIF values of the samples were calculated. After that, the extended finite element method in the simulation of fatigue crack growth was introduced, and the simulation of crack growth paths under different external loads was analyzed. At last, we took a partial model from the Sutong Bridge and supposed its two dangerous parts already had fine cracks; then simulative vehicle load was added onto the U-rib to predict crack growth paths using the extended finite element method.
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is one of the instruments for remote detection of damage of structures (cavities, cracks) which is successfully used to assess technical conditions of building objects. Most of the point clouds analysis from TLS relies only on spatial information (3D–XYZ). This study presents an approach based on using the intensity value as an additional element of information in diagnosing technical conditions of architectural structures. The research has been carried out in laboratory and field conditions. Its results show that the coefficient of laser beam reflectance in TLS can be used as a supplementary source of information to improve detection of defects in constructional objects.
Improving energy efficiency is key to moving toward sustainable development. It contributes to the reduction of energy consumption and carbon emissions, as well as to climate change mitigation. Indicators of energy efficiency play an important role in this field because their improvement is targeted by policy makers. Indicators based on the ratio between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) are currently used by multiple key organizations, including Eurostat and the World Bank, as the main energy efficiency indicators. This study examines the most widely used indicators and identifies their deficiencies. Over the last decades, these indicators tend to show a continuous strong improvement, signifying positive progress toward energy efficiency, even in cases when the physical consumption of energy has increased significantly. This phenomenon is based on GDP adjustment. The energy intensity of economies, used currently to measure energy efficiency, masks problems and has led to the green labeling of wealthier economies. An analysis of energy efficiencies reported for multiple countries and the structure of their energy spending shows that the reported values are counterproductive for comparing economies in the context of environmental protection. The indicators sanction economies with low energy consumption and low or moderate GDP. The economies belonging to the group of the largest energy spenders per capita are labeled highly efficient because of GDP adjustment. Decision makers are therefore prompted to focus on GDP growth even at the cost of a major increase in energy consumption. An additional problem in the indicators is that they do not properly model international trade. The responsibility for energy spending is shifted toward the producers of energy-intensive goods and services. Energy intensity is a useful indicator to measure the resistance of an economy to the volatilities of energy prices. However, the challenges in the fields of environmental pollution and climate change are related to physical processes and energy consumption rather than to changes in the GDP or the monetary valuation of products and services. Indicators measuring energy efficiency as GDP per unit of energy use are inadequate and misleading as principal tools to measure energy efficiency.
In the paper the author has described the visualization methods in acoustic flow fields and show how these methods may assist scientists to gain understanding of complex acoustic energy flow in real-life field. A graphical method will be presented to determine the real acoustic wave distribution in the flow field. Visualization of research results, which is unavailable by conventional acoustics metrology, may be shown in the form of intensity streamlines in space, as a shape of floating acoustic wave and intensity isosurface in three-dimensional space. In traditional acoustic metrology, the analysis of acoustic fields concerns only the distribution of pressure levels (scalar variable), however in a real acoustic field both the scalar (acoustic pressure) and vector (the acoustic particle velocity) effects are closely related. Only when the acoustic field is described by both the potential and kinetic energies, we may understand the mechanisms of propagation, diffraction and scattering of acoustic waves on obstacles, as a form of energy image. This attribute of intensity method can also validate the results of CFD/CAA numerical modeling which is very important in any industry acoustic investigations.
A system setup for measurements of acoustic field, together with the results of 3D visualisations of acoustic energy flow are presented in the paper. Spatial sampling of the field is performed by a Cartesian robot. Automatization of the measurement process is achieved with the use of a specialized control system. The method is based on measuring the sound pressure (scalar) and particle velocity(vector) quantities. The aim of the system is to collect data with a high precision and repeatability. The system is employed for measurements of acoustic energy flow in the proximity of an artificial head in an anechoic chamber. In the measurement setup an algorithm for generation of the probe movement path is included. The algorithm finds the optimum path of the robot movement, taking into account a given 3D object shape present in the measurement space. The results are presented for two cases, first without any obstacle and the other - with an artificial head in the sound field.
This study sought to evaluate the effect of speech intensity on performance of the Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) presented in noise. Fourteen normally hearing listeners performed both tests in 65 dB A white background noise. Speech intensity varied while background noise remained constant to form speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of -18, -15, -12, -9, and -6 dB. Results showed that CAT recognition scores were significantly higher than MRT scores at the same SNRs; however, the scores from both tests were highly correlated and their relationship for the SNRs tested can be expressed by a simple linear function. The concept of CAT can be easily ported to other languages for testing speech communication under adverse listening conditions.
Outdoor remote temperature measurements in the infrared range can be very inaccurate because of the influence of solar radiation reflected from a measured object. In case of strong directional reflection towards a measuring device, the error rate can easily reach hundreds per cent as the reflected signal adds to the thermal emission of an object. As a result, the measured temperature is much higher than the real one. Error rate depends mainly on the emissivity of an object and intensity of solar radiation. The position of the measuring device with reference to an object and the Sun is also important. The method of compensation of such undesirable influence of solar radiation will be presented. It is based on simultaneous measurements in two different spectral bands, shor-twavelength and long-wavelength ones. The temperature of an object is derived from long-wavelength data only, whereas the short-wavelength band, the corrective one, is used to estimate the solar radiation level. Both bands were selected to achieve proportional changes of the output signal due to solar radiation. Knowing the relation between emissivity and solar radiation levels in both spectral bands, it is possible to reduce the measurement error several times.
Noise propagation within ducts is of practical concern in many areas of industrial processes where a fluid has to be transported in piping systems. The paper presents experimental data and visualization of flow in the vicinity of an abrupt change in cross-section of a circular duct and on obstacles inside where the acoustic wave generates nonlinear separated flow and vortex fields. For noise produced by flow wave of low Mach number, laminar and turbulent flows are studied us- ing experimental sound intensity (SI) and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique adopted to acoustics (A-PIV). The emphasis is put on the development and application of these methods for better understanding of noise generation inside the acoustic ducts with different cross-sections. The intensity distribution inside duct is produced by the action of the sum of modal pressures on the sum of modal particle velocities. However, acoustic field is extremely complicated because pressures in non-propagating (cut-off) modes cooperate with particle velocities in propagating modes, and vice versa. The discrete frequency sound is strongly influenced by the transmission of higher order modes in the duct. By under- standing the mechanism of energy in the sound channels and pipes we can find the best solution to noise abatement technology. In the paper, numerous methods of visualization illustrate the vortex flow as an acoustic velocity or sound intensity stream which can be presented graphically. Diffraction and scattering phenomena occurring inside and around the open-end of the acoustic duct are shown.
Nature reserves are one of the most important measures in saving biodiversity, however, during the climate change, a real danger arises, that these territories would not be able to fulfill the objectives. In order to mitigate negative effects of climate change in protected areas it is necessary to create and apply management programs, based on future ecosystems needs. The main aim of presented study was to evaluate sensitivity of rare and vulnerable species to climate change in order to suggest measures for better management of nature reserves in the future. According to scientific literature, 12 biological and ecological plant characteristics determining sensitivity of species (limiting factors) have been detected. 73 plant species that are protected in Lithuanian reserves were evaluated qualitatively according to limiting factors of climate change. As the result, it was offered to apply additional protection measures to 47 species in the light of climate change. Groups of plant species that should be affected highly negatively or highly positively were identified. 16% of plant species protected in nature reserves were evaluated as very sensitive to climate change and the condition of these plants may worsen. On the other hand, 14 plant species were given as least sensitive to negative effects and future climate is more favorable to species growth and spread than the existing. The highest danger is predicted for Silene chlorantha (Willd.) Ehrh., and the best condition is predicted for Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. Dactylorhiza incarnata (L.) Soó. The study also gives recommendations for the protection of rare plants in the future. Different management measures are taken into account: mitigation of the direct effect of climate change (I), improvement of an existing level of rareness (II), respecting the relation to physical and biological environment (III), consideration of spread and geographical limits (IV). Three management intensity levels were suggested according to species sensitivity.
In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.
The paper provides statistical analysis of the photographs of four various granular materials (peas, pellets, triticale, wood chips). For analysis, the (parametric) ANOVA and the (nonparametric) Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied. Additionally, the (parametric) two-sample t-test and (non-parametric) Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test for pairwise comparisons were performed. In each case, the Bonferroni correction was used. The analysis shows a statistical evidence of the presence of differences between the respective average discrete pixel intensity distributions (PID), induced by the histograms in each group of photos, which cannot be explained only by the existing differences among single granules of different materials. The proposed approach may contribute to the development of a fast inspection method for comparison and discrimination of granular materials differing from the reference material, in the production process.