Unfavorable spatial structure of arable land located in Małopolska is a major obstacle in conducting agricultural activity. Arable lands located in the southern part of Małopolska are fragmented, have small area, and irregular shapes. Agricultural activity on land with an unfavorable spatial structure is associated with an increase in production costs, which directly results in lower income of farms. One of the methods of improving spatial conditions is to implement land consolidation works. They allow to organize the spatial structure, increase the area of agriculturally used parcels, while reducing their number. The article presents a new approach in determining the parameters of land fragmentation. GIS tools were used to identify areas with unfavorable spatial parameters. The methodology which allows for the processing, filtration of source data, determination and visualization of land fragmentation parameters is discussed. As part of the research, the Binning method was used, which allows to visualize the phenomenon and simultaneously reduce the data used. In the work, a detailed assessment of land fragmentation parameters was made, which can be used in agricultural land management works. Analyzes have shown that the southern areas of the Nowy Targ County are characterized by intensive fragmentation of arable land. There are also unfavorable parameters related to the elongation and shape of parcels in the discussed areas.
The study included mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno, located in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of water vegetation of a mesotrophic lake subjected to strong recreational pressure. Specifically we sought to better understand which natu-ral landscapes and anthropogenic developments stimulate or impede macrophyte development and spread. The study was conducted in July in 1997, 2007 and 2017 in three transects: the peat-bog (northern part of the lake), the recreational area (southeast part) and the agricultural area (east). The phytolittoral zone was analyzed from the shoreline to the maximum range of macrophytes occurrence. The study included all groups of macrophytes. Macrophytes in the mesotrophic Lake Piaseczno are still subjected to successive changes. Clearly increased diversity among emergent macrophytes, while a group of submerged macrophytes decreased. The largest changes among analyzed groups of macrophytes occurred in recreational and agricultural transects. Macrophytes have increased the range of occurrence, which may be due to hydrological changes associated with raising the overall water level, thus with increasing the area of the littoral. Impoverishment of diversity among elodeids shows the processes associated with the increase in Lake trophy.
Costs of Spatial Disorder for the Real Estate Market. The article discusses the problem of costs which the spatial disorder in Poland causes in the real estate market. It also draws attention to the likely future consequences of the current lack of spatial order for the domestic real estate market. The impact of spatial chaos on the functioning of this market was considered in terms of economic, social and environmental costs. In the empirical part of the paper, analyzing land turnover in the Poznań agglomeration, the characteristics of the undeveloped real estate market in metropolitan areas in Poland were presented. At the same time, the negative effects of land trading in the situation of a flawed spatial planning system were emphasized. In addition, particular attention was paid to the common practice in Poland of excluding only part of the investment plots from agricultural use. At the same time, the urgent need to create the mechanisms of the actual protection of agricultural land within the agglomeration is emphasized.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.