A buckling analysis of temperature-dependent embedded plates reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) subjected to a magnetic field is investigated. The SWCNTs are distributed as uniform (UD) and three types of functionally graded nanotubes (FG), in which the material properties of the nano-composite plate are estimated based on the mixture rule. The surrounding temperature-dependent elastic medium is simulated as Pasternak foundation. Based on the orthotropic Mindlin plate theory, the governing equations are derived using Hamilton's principle. The buckling load of the structure is calculated based on an exact solution by the Navier method. The influences of elastic medium, magnetic field, temperature and distribution type, and volume fractions of SWCNT are shown on the buckling of the plate. Results indicate that CNT distribution close to the top and bottom are more efficient than that distributed near the mid-plane for increasing the stiffness of the plates.
A ship built from ferromagnetic steel disturbs the uniformity of the Earth’s magnetic field. Changes of ship’s signature are due to the magneto-mechanical interaction of the hull with the Earth’s magnetic field. The ship’s magnetic field can be detected by a magnetic naval mine. For this reason, the vessel has to be demagnetized. There are several methods of ship’s de-perming. The results of experimental and computer simulations of the ship’s de-perming process using coils lying on the seabed are presented in this paper. The simulation of the de-perming process with a hysteresis model of ship’s steel was carried out in Opera-3d 18R2. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a physical ship’s model, several Helmholtz coils, magneto-resistive sensors, etc. The experiments and computer simulations have shown that ship’s de-perming with coils lying on the seabed is possible. The values of coil currents are over dozen times greater than those used in the standard method.
The paper presents research on the capability of the residual magnetic field (RMF) measurement system to be applied to the railway inspection for the early non-destructive detection of defects. The metal magnetic memory (MMM) phenomena are analysed using normal component Hy of self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL), and its tangential component Hx, as well as their respective gradients. The measurement apparatus is described together with possible factors that may affect the results of measurement. The Type A uncertainty estimation and repeatability tests were performed. The results demonstrate that the system may be successfully applied to detection of head check flaws.
The current research aimed to use non traditional methods to control some stored grain insects. The effects of 180 millitesla (mT) magnetic field (MF) for six different exposure periods (3 min, 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h) on mortality (%) of two stored grain insects, Tribolium casteneum adults and Trogoderma granarium larvae, reduction in F1-progeny (%), seeds germination (%) and seed components (%) after 8 months storage period were studied under laboratory conditions. According to results, the mortality (%) of tested insects increased with increasing of MF time exposure. Trogoderma granarium was more resistant than T. casteneum in which mortality reached 56 and 75%, respectively 14 days after from exposure period. Without any negative effect on seeds germination (%) the MF was very effective in protecting stored wheat from insect infestation up to 8 months compared to non-magnetic seeds which became infested after 3 months of storage. Furthermore, the germination (%) was accelerated by 6 h compared to non-magnetic seeds. The MF level caused a slight increase in the percent of total carbohydrate, crude protein and ash while slightly decrease the percent of moisture, total fats and crude fiber.
The main purpose of the paper is to present a method which allows taking into account the anisotropic properties of dynamo steel sheets. An additional aim is to briefly present anisotropic properties of these sheets which are caused by occurrences of some textures. In order to take into account textures occurring in dynamo sheets, a certain sheet sample is divided into elementary segments. Two matrix equations, describing changes of the magnetic field, are transformed to one non-linear algebraic equation in which the field strength components are unknown. In this transformation the flux densities assigned to individual elementary segments are replaced by functions of flux densities of easy magnetization axes of all textures occurring in the given dynamo sheet. The procedure presented in the paper allows determining one non-linear matrix equation of the magnetic field distribution; in this equation all textures occurring in a dynamo sheet are included. Information about textures occurring in typical dynamo sheets may be used in various approaches regarding the inclusion of anisotropic properties of these sheets, but above all, the presented method can be helpful in calculations of the magnetic field distribution in anisotropic dynamo sheets.
We propose a novel magnetic field sensitive semiconductor device, viz., Horizontally-Split-Drain Magnetic-Field Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (HSDMAGFET) which can be used to measure or detect steady or variable magnetic fields. Operating principle of the transistor is based on one of the galvanomagnetic phenomena and a Gradual Channel Detachment Effect (GCDE) and is very similar to that of Popovic and Baltes's SDMAGFET. The predicted absolute sensitivity of the new sensor can reach as high value as 1000 V/T. Furthermore, due to its original structure, the spatial resolution of the new MAGFET is very high which makes this device especially useful in reading magnetically encoded data or magnetic pattern recognition.
This paper summarizes the activity of the chosen Polish geodetic research teams in 2015–2018 in the fields of Earth: rotation, dynamics as well as magnetic field. It has been prepared for the needs of the presentation on the 27th International Union of Geodesy and Geodynamics General Assembly, Montreal, Canada. The part concerning Earth rotation is mostly focused on the use of modelling of diurnal and subdiurnal components of Earth rotation by including low frequency components of polar motion and UT1 in the analysis, study of free oscillations in Earth rotation derived from both space-geodetic observations of polar motion and the time variation of the second degree gravitational field coefficients derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations, new methods of monitoring of Earth rotation, as well as studies on applications of the Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG) for direct and continuous measurements of changes in Earth rotation and investigations of the hydrological excitation of polar motion. Much attention was devoted to the GRACE-derived gravity for explaining the influence of surface mass redistributions on polar motion. Monitoring of the geodynamical phenomena is divided into study on local and regional dynamics using permanent observations, investigation on tidal phenomena, as well as research on hydrological processes and sea level variation parts. Finally, the recent research conducted by Polish scientists on the Earth’s magnetic field is described.
3D printing is a technology with possibilities related to the production of elements of any geometry, directly from a digital project. Elements made of plastic are metalized to give new properties such as conductivity or corrosion resistance. In this work, experimental work related to the electroless deposition of metallic coatings on plastics was carried out. For this purpose, the copper and nickel coatings were catalytically deposited on elements printed using hard-lightened resin. The effect of the metallization time on the properties of copper and nickel coatings was determined. In addition, the process of deposition metals in the magnetic field was analyzed with different direction of magnetic field to the surface of the samples. The coatings were analyzed by XRF, XRD method and morphology of surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The development of a distributed generation will influence the structure of the power transmission and distribution network. Distributed sources have lower power and therefore the lines of lower voltage are used. Therefore, the electric field intensity near such lines is lower. On the other hand magnetic field intensity may prove essential. The main aim of the paper is to present a method estimating the “ballast” of the natural environment at 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields in the power system, with distributed and centralized generation in real operating conditions.
This paper presents the summary of research activities carried out in Poland in 2011–2014 in the field of Earth rotation and geodynamics by several Polish research institutions. It contains a summary of works on Earth rotation, including evaluation and prediction of its parameters and analysis of the related excitation data as well as research on associated geodynamic phenomena such as geocentre motion, global sea level change and hydrological processes. The second part of the paper deals with monitoring of geodynamic phenomena. It contains analysis of geodynamic networks of local, and regional scale using space (GNSS and SLR) techniques, Earth tides monitoring with gravimeters and water-tube hydrostatic clinometer, and the determination of secular variation of the Earth’ magnetic field.
The main objective of these experiments was to study the oxygen mass transfer rate through the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) for an experimental set-up equipped with a rotating magnetic field (RMF) generator and various liquids. The experimental results indicated that kLa increased along the magnetic strength and the superficial gas velocity. Mathematical correlations defining the influence of the considered factors on kLa were proposed.
This paper presents a geomagnetic detection method for pipeline defects using complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and wavelet energy product (WEP) – Teager energy operator (TEO), which improves detection accuracy and defect identification ability as encountering strong inference noise. The measured signal is first subtly decomposed via CEEMDAN into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are then distinguished by the Hurst exponent to reconstruct the filtered signal. Subsequently, the scale signals are obtained by using gradient calculation and discrete wavelet transform and are then fused by using WEP. Finally, TEO is implemented to enhance defect signal amplitude, completing geomagnetic detection of pipeline defects. The simulation results created by magnetic dipole in a noisy environment, indoor experiment results and field testing results certify that the proposed method outperforms ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-gradient, EEMD-WEP-TEO, CEEMDAN-gradient in terms of detection deviation, peak side-lobe ratio (PSLR) and integrated side-lobe ratio (ISLR).
The aim of the study was to present an experimental investigation of the influence of the RMF on mixing time. The obtained results suggest that the homogenization time for the tested experimental set-up depending on the frequency of the RMF can be worked out by means of the relationship between the dimensionless mixing time number and the Reynolds number. It was shown that the magnetic field can be applied successfully to mixing liquids.
The paper presents a description of the phenomena occurring on the surface of the forging dies. A detailed analysis was made of 24 pre-forging dies due to the most intensive wear in this operation. To compare the results, new tools were also analysed. The research described in the study showed that the most dangerous factor for the hot forging process analysed is thermal-mechanical fatigue, which causes small cracks, which in turn quickly leads to the formation of a crack network on the entire contact surface of the tool with forged material. The second phenomenon is the tempering of the surface of the material for a long-term temperature effect. The presence of hard iron oxides in the form of scale from forging material is the accompanying phenomenon that intensifies the processes of tool wear. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the presence of residual magnetic field for forging tools and the results of laboratory tests of wear processes of tool steels for hot work in the presence of a magnetic field and in the presence of scale.
The effect of rotating magnetic field on the heat transfer process in a magnetically assisted bioreactor was studied experimentally. Experimental investigations are provided for the explanation of the influence of the rotating magnetic field on natural convection. The heat transfer coefficients and the Nusselt numbers were determined as a function of the product of Grashof and Prandtl dimensionless numbers. Moreover, the comparison of the thermal performance between the tested set-up and a vertical cylinder was carried out. The relative enhancement of heat transfer was characterized by the rate of the relative heat transfer intensification. The study showed that along with the intensity of the magnetic field the heat transfer increased.
Energy based approach was used in the study to formulate a set of functions approximating the magnetic flux linkages versus independent currents. The simplest power series that approximates field co-energy and linked fluxes for a two winding core of an induction machine are described by a set of common unknown coefficients. The authors tested three algorithms for the coefficient estimation using Weighted Least-Squared Method for two different positions of the coils. The comparison of the approximation accuracy was accomplished in the specified area of the currents. All proposed algorithms of the coefficient estimation have been found to be effective. The algorithm based solely on the magnetic field co-energy values is significantly simpler than the method based on the magnetic flux linkages estimation concept. The algorithm based on the field co-energy and linked fluxes seems to be the most suitable for determining simultaneously the coefficients of power series approximating linked fluxes and field co-energy.
Harmonic flux penetrating solid conductive material causes eddy currents inside. It seems plausible that its magnitude does not exceed the exciting magnetomotive force (mmf). However, under certain circumstances the opposite occurs. This article deals with a special case in which the eddy current is approximately 13% higher than the exciting mmf. An analytical field solution, a finite element calculation and a measurement proving this phenomenon are presented. A special flux linkage is turned out to be the reason for this phenomenon. Finally, another example with higher pronounced mmfexceeding in a coil is presented.
Electromagnetic arrangements which create a magnetic field of required distribution and magnitude are widely used in electrical engineering. Development of new accurate designing methods is still a valid topic of technical investigations. From the theoretical point of view the problem belongs to magnetic fields synthesis theory. This paper discusses a problem of designing a shape of a solenoid which produces a uniform magnetic field on its axis. The method of finding an optimal shape is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with Bézier curves.
The paper presents a simulation model of the hybrid magnetic bearing dedicated to simulations of transient state. The proposed field-circuit model is composed of two components. The first part constitutes a set of ordinary differential equations that describes electrical circuits and mechanics. The second part of the simulation model consists of parameters such as magnetic forces, dynamic inductances and velocity-induced voltages obtained from the 3D finite element analysis. The MATLAB/Simulnik softwarewas used to implement the simulation model with the required control system. The proposed field-circuit model was validated by comparison of time responses with the prototype of the hybrid magnetic bearing.
Very low residual magnetic field and field gradients are essential for a number of high resolution fundamental physical experiments and for further improvement of very sensitive magnetic measurement devices. The scope ranges from spin precession experiments, e.g. with 3He or neutrons, to biomagnetic measurements, like magnetoencephalograms, and to low field MR spectroscopy. One method of reducing environmental magnetic noise is to use a magnetically shielded room (MSR). Here, measures are demonstrated to improve residual field and field gradient inside a common MSR by a factor of more than 10 by a specific degaussing procedure, material selection of prefabricated parts and active shielding. The process is independent of the shielding factor and works also properly for heavily shielded rooms.
The paper presents the implementation of the method of own residual magnetic field to identify damages occurring in a steel rope. A special measuring head with 4 residual magnetic field sensors, spaced evenly every 90 degrees, was used. The measuring head was also equipped with a path or a time sensor. The measurement consists in recording normal and tangential components of the residual magnetic field and their gradients. This method has a number of advantages with regard to classic magnetic methods. It does not require special magnetisation of the rope or its special preparation for testing. Validation of the obtained test results of this rope was conducted by the classic MTR method and a very good compliance in the detection of damage was demonstrated. It was found that the strong magnetisation used in the MTR method does not affect the detection of damage to the rope using the residual magnetic field method.
The paper presents optimization of power line geometrical parameters aimed to reduce the intensity of the electric field and magnetic field intensity under an overhead power line with the use of a genetic algorithm (AG) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The variation of charge distribution along the conductors as well as the sag of the overhead line and induced currents in earth wires were taken into account. The conductor sag was approximated by a chain curve. The charge simulation method (CSM) and the method of images were used in the simulations of an electric field, while a magnetic field were calculated using the Biot–Savart law. Sample calculations in a three-dimensional system were made for a 220 kV single – circuit power line. A comparison of the used optimization algorithms was made.
The work deals with the heat analysis of generalized Burgers nanofluid over a stretching sheet. The Rosseland approximation is used to model the non-linear thermal radiation and incorporated non-uniform heat source/sink effect. The governing equations reduced to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations under considering the suitable similarity transformations. The obtained ordinary differential equations equations are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg order method. The effect of important parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are analyzed and discussed through the graphs. It reveals that temperature increases with the increase of radiation and heat source/sink parameter.
One of the most important parameters, crucial to applications of superconductors in cryo-electrotechnique, is power loss. Measurements of losses in superconducting long sample wires require AC magnetic fields of a special geometry and appropriate high homogeneity. In the paper part of the theoretical basis for calculations and a simple design method for a race-track coil set are presented. An example of such home-made coils, with a magnetic field uniformity of about 0.2 % over the range of about 8 cm, is given. Also a simple electronic measurement system for the determination of AC magnetization loss in samples of superconducting tapes is presented.