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Abstract

Current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of royal jelly on Flunixin me- glumine (FM)-induced spermiotoxicity related to sperm concentration, abnormal spermatozoa count and histopathological changes in mice testis. The subjects were divided into five groups according to FM and/or royal jelly intake: Control group; group 1, FM alone (25 mg/kg, im); group 2, combination of FM (25 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral); group 3, FM alone (50 mg/kg, im); and group 4, combination of FM (50 mg/kg, im) and royal jelly (200 mg/kg, oral). The animals were fed once daily for 15 days and they were sacrificed last day. Epididymal sperm concentration and abnormal spermatozoa count were noted. Testicular histological findings were evaluated. On purpose, organization of each animal was graded according to Johnsen’s scoring to assess the spermatogenesis relying on seminiferous tubule cross-section scores. Comparing to controls, FM administration caused a decrease in sperm concentration (p<0.05), an increase in total abnormal spermatozoa rates (p<0.05) and more degenerative changes in testes in mice. Royal jelly supplementation ameliorated both sperm concentration and abnormal spermato- zoa (p<0.05) comparing to the control group. In conclusion, we suggested that royal jelly might have protective effects in the FM-induced reductions in epididymal sperm concentration and in- crease in abnormal spermatozoa rate.
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Abstract

The aim of our research was to investigate the genotoxic effects of cobalt chloride and copper chloride in mouse bone marrow cells using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The three different concentrations of cobalt chloride (11.2, 22.5 and 45 mg kg-1) and copper chloride (1.17, 2.35 and 4.70 mg kg-1) were injected intraperitoneally to mice for 24 and 48 hours. It was observed that both of these heavy metals induced a significant increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) at different concentrations in mice for 24 and 48 hours when compared with the control. Furthermore, the significant reduction for the polychromatic erythrocyte/normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/NCE) ratio which is indicative of bone marrow cytotoxicity was observed in bone marrow cells which were treated with copper chloride at all concentrations for 24 and 48 hours. No reduction of the PCE/NCE ratio was observed both 24 and 48 hours after all the doses of cobalt chloride tested as compared to the negative control. These results lead us to the conclusion that copper chloride may have genotoxic and cytotoxic properties due to induction in the frequency of MN and a reduction in PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow cells of mice, whereas cobalt chloride induced only genotoxic effect in mice bone marrow
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