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Abstract

Campyloprion Eastman, 1902 is a chondrichthyan having an arched symphyseal tooth whorl similar to that of Helicoprion Karpinsky, 1899, but less tightly coiled. The holotype of Campyloprion annectans Eastman, 1902, the type species of Campyloprion, is of unknown provenance, but is presumed to be from the Pennsylvanian of North America. Campyloprion ivanovi (Karpinsky, 1922) has been described from the Gzhelian of Russia. A partial symphyseal tooth whorl, designated as Campyloprion cf. C. ivanovi, is reported from the Missourian Tinajas Member of the Atrasado Formation of Socorro County, New Mexico, USA. Partial tooth whorls from the Virgilian Finis Shale and Jacksboro Limestone Members of the Graham Formation of northern Texas, USA, are designated as Campyloprion sp. Two partial tooth whorls from the Gzhelian of Russia that were previously referred to C. ivanovi are designated as Campyloprion cf. C. annectans. The age of Toxoprion lecontei (Dean, 1898), from Nevada, USA, is corrected from the Carboniferous to the early Permian. An alternative interpretation of the holotype of T. lecontei is presented, resulting in a reversal of its anterior-to-posterior orientation. The genera Helicoprion, Campyloprion, and Shaktauites Tchuvashov, 2001 can be distinguished by their different spiral angles.
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Abstract

Three problems in the taxonomy of Pancratium in Egypt are the lack of publications, a lack of clarity about the relationships between recently distinguished species, and the lack of markers for examining the levels and patterns of variation in rare and endemic species; the latter hinders work in plant conservation genetics. In this study we reassessed the taxonomic status of the Pancratium species of Egypt, and examined morphological and genetic variation within and between species, using specimens from different populations collected throughout its distribution range in the country. Our assessment was based on 38 macromorphological characters mainly representing vegetative parts, flowers, fruits and seeds, in addition to RAPD data. The results revealed five morphologically distinguished Pancratium species in Egypt, of which P. trianthum Herb. is newly recorded. Species identification was confirmed by two phenetic dendrograms generated with 26 quantitative morphological characters and RAPD data, while species delimitation was verified by principal component analysis. The diagnostic floral characters are those of the perianth, corona teeth, pistil, stamens, aerial scape, spathe, and number of flowers. The retrieved RAPD polymorphic bands show better resolution of the morphologically and ecologically closely allied Pancratium species (P. arabicum and P. maritimum), and also confirm the morphological and ecological divergence of P. tortuosum from the other studied species. These results are supported by the constructed UPGMA dendrogram.
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