Application of active noise reduction (ANR) systems in hearing protectors requires the use of control algorithms to ensure stability of the ANR system and at the same time highly effective active noise reduction. A control algorithm based on NOTCH filters is an example of solutions that meet these criteria. Their disadvantage is operation over a narrow frequency band and a need for prior determination of frequencies to be reduced. This paper presents a solution of the ANR system for hearing protectors which is controlled with the use of modified NOTCH filters with parameters determined by a genetic algorithm. Application of a genetic algorithm allows to change the NOTCH filter reference signal frequency, and thus, adapt the filter to the reduced signal frequency.
In 2011, over 520 thousand persons worked in hazardous conditions (according to the GUS). Among hazardous factors related to working environment noise was found to be the most common one, threatening 199,6 thousand people (52.9% threats-per-persons related to working environment). The prevalence of workplace noise and increasing awareness of effects of its impact on the human body causes increase of the demand for knowledge of the methods of noise reduction. Due to the lack of knowledge concerning the proper use of hearing protectors, effective noise exposure in the real world may be about a dozen dB higher than the declared assumed protection value. For this reason, in Central Institute for Labour Protection - NRI “The interactive system for learning the correct use of hearing protectors” has been developed. The system includes a multimedia guide on hearing protectors supplemented by video tutorials, training materials with training hearing protectors, and software for evaluation of the activities of the trainee.
Additional sound sources are used as actuators in the vast majority of active noise reduction systems. One of the possible opportunities to extend the field of applications of active noise reduction systems is using active structures of variable sound insulation. The paper presents an analysis of ways of reducing noise with a structure of variable sound insulation consisting of a metal plate, active elements (Macro Fiber Composite), and a control system. The paper presents results of acoustic radiation simulations and measurements of sound intensity generated by the structure under the influence of stimulation by an acoustic wave. Simulations of mechanical vibrations and acoustic radiation for the plate were performed with the finite element method and ANSYS software. Simulation results made it possible to select locations for gluing the active elements and sensors. Analyses of the sound pressure level in the space to which the plate is radiating made it possible to determine dominant frequencies in the characteristics and, as a result, indicate vibration modes that can be reduced. Sound intensity measurements were performed with a three-way probe of USP mini Microflown. Results of simulations and measurements show that it is possible to achieve an improvement of the insulating power of a metal plate by approx. 10 dB.
Optimization of encoding process in video compression is an important research problem, especially in the case of modern, sophisticated compression technologies. In this paper, we consider HEVC, for which a novel method for selection of the encoding modes is proposed. By the encoding modes we mean e.g. coding block structure, prediction types and motion vectors. The proposed selection is done basing on noise-reduced version of the input sequence, while the information about the video itself, e.g. transform coefficients, is coded basing on the unaltered input. The proposed method involves encoding of two versions of the input sequence. Further, we show realization proving that the complexity is only negligibly higher than complexity of a single encoding. The proposal has been implemented in HEVC reference software from MPEG and tested experimentally. The results show that the proposal provides up to 1.5% bitrate reduction while preserving the same quality of a decoded video.
The paper shows the new method for noise reduction in external gear pumps based on the analysis of the pressure in inter teeth volumes. The simulation model and measurement results of pressure changes in the inter teeth volume has been presented. Based on simulation results an additional volume has been obtained, which is connected to the inter teeth volume (decompression filter volume). Due this additional volume the build down processes in the pump are longer and the pressure overdue in the inter teeth volumes are smaller. This leads to the reduction of the dynamical excitation forces inside the pump and noise, especially in the higher frequency rangeI.
Problems associated with designing silencers are presented. Results of direct tests of silencers for cooperation with systems of axial fans, as well as results of numerical tests of a two stage acoustic silencer, are given. The numerical tests enabled determining the distribution of acoustic field inside the silencer and in the surrounding area. In those tests A sound insertion losses for different variants of installation inside the silencer, as well as for two different types of absorbing material used to fill the silencer walls, were determined. Impact of design features of silencers on effectiveness of noise reduction is described. Also, a technical sketch of a universal silencer with significant noise reduction (DipS = 39:1 dB) which can be successfully used in many ventilation systems is presented
The paper presents an extensive review investigating the practical aspects related to the use of single- number ratings used in describing the sound insulation performance of partition wall panels and practical complications encountered in precise measurements in extensive frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. SWOT analysis of various single number ratings is described. A laboratory investigation on a double wall partition panel combination revealed the significant dependence of STC rating on transmission loss at 125 Hz attributed to 8 dB rule. An investigation conducted on devising alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, vehicular horn noise and elevated metro train noise as an extension to ISO 717-1 Ctr for ascertaining the sound insulation properties of materials exclusively towards these noise sources revealed that the single-number rating Rw + Ctr calculated using ISO 717-1 Ctr gives the minimum sound insulation, when compared with Rw + Cx calculated using the alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, etc., which means that material provides a higher sound insulation to the other noise sources. It is also observed that spectrum adaptation term Cx calculated using the spectrum of noise sources having high sound pressure levels in lower frequencies decreases as compared to ISO 717-1 Ctr owing to significant dependence of Ctr at lower frequencies.