This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions) and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics) were determined.
The temperature dependence of the particle size distribution (PSD) of the magnetic fluid with an additional biocompatible dextran layer was studied using a ultrasonic method. The measurements of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation were carried out as a function of the volume concentration of magnetite particles at temperatures ranging from 15°C to 40°C. In order to extract the PSD from ultrasonic measurements, the theoretical model of Vinogradov-Isakovich was used. The extraction of PSD from the ultrasonic data requires also the measurements the density and viscosity of the ferrofluid samples. The calculated PSD of the magnetic fluid with an additional biocompatible layer shows a greater thermal stability than that of a magnetic fluid with a single surfactant layer.
In technology of coal fines beneficiation in Poland mainly fines jigging processes are in use. In case of steam coal fines beneficiation it is till 80% of the whole amount of produced assortments, while in case of coking coal fines it is 100%. The necessary condition of not homogenous feed separation which is directed to beneficiation process in pulsating water stream is a sufficient liberation of particles. The stratification of particles in working bed causes that particles of certain size, density and shape gather in individual layers in working bed of jig. The introduction of sufficient amount of additional water determines appropriate liberation of particles group, which generates partition into concentrate and tailings. The paper presents the results of sampling of industrial jig used for the beneficiation of coal fines by three various settings of additional amount of water under sieve which is directed to jigging. These amounts were equal to 35, 50 and 70 [m3/h]. Collected samples of separation products were then sieved into narrow particle size fractions and divided into density fractions. In such narrow size-density fractions the coordinates of partition curves were calculated for tailings of hard coal fines, which were subsequently approximated by means of Weibull distribution function. The separation precision measured by separation density, probable error and imperfection were determined on the basis of obtained model separation curves. The evaluation of separation effects was performed for a wide particle size fraction: feed directed to jigging process and narrow particle size fractions. The analysis of separation results in size-density fractions allowed to determine the influence of particle size change on the value of probable error. The results of separation precision in size-density fractions were compared with effects of separation of wide particle fraction, i.e. feed directed to jigging process.
This paper presents an effect of general dimensions of a reverse flow mini-cyclone with a tangential inlet on its separation efficiency. Several mini-cyclone design modifications are presented and evaluated for use in the air filtration systems of motor vehicles. Local design improvements of three components of a reverse flow mini-cyclone with a tangential inlet D-40 of an air filter fitted in an all-terrain vehicle engine were introduced. An asymmetric curvilinear shape of an outlet port was used instead of a symmetrical shape. An outlet vortex finder inlet port shape was streamlined, and a cylindrical outlet vortex finder of the cyclone was replaced with a conical one. Experimental evaluation of the effects of the design improvements of mini-cyclone on its separation efficiency and performance as well as flow resistance was carried out. Separation efficiency of the cyclone was determined using the mass method as a product of dust mass retained by the mini-cyclone and supplied to the mini-cyclone in a specified time. Separation performance of the cyclone was determined as the largest dust particle dz =dzmax in a specific test cycle in the cyclone outlet air stream. A polydisperse PTC-D test dust used in Poland, a substitute for AC-fine test dust was used. Dust concentration at the mini-cyclone inlet was kept at 1 g/m3. The size and total number of dust particles in the air stream at the outlet of the original mini-cyclone and at the outlet of the improved mini-cyclone was determined using a particle counter.
The analysis of particle size in suspensions carried out with use of the laser diffraction method enables us to obtain not only information about the size of particles, but also about their properties, shape and spatial structure, determined basing on fractal dimension. The fractal dimension permits the evaluation of the interior of aggregates, at the same time showing the degree of complexity of the matter. In literature, much attention is paid to the evaluation of the fractal dimension of flocs in activated sludge, in the aspect of control of single processes, i.e. sedimentation, dehydration, coagulation or flocculation. However, results of research concerning the size of particles and the structure of suspensions existing in raw and treated sewage are still lacking. The study presents optical fractal dimensions D3 and particle size distributions measured with use of laser granulometer in raw and treated sewage and activated sludge collected from six mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plants located in the Lower Silesian region. The obtained test results demonstrate that wastewater treatment plants that use both sequencing batch reactors and continuous flow reactors are more efficient at capturing suspension particles of a size up to 30 μm and are characterized by an increased removal of particles of a size ranging from 30 μm to 550 μm to the outflow. Additionally, in the case of samples of treated sewage and activated sludge collected at the same location, at short intervals, similar particle distributions were observed. As far as the analysis of fractal dimensions is concerned, particles contained in the raw sewage suspension were characterized by the lowest values of the fractal dimension (median equals 1.89), while the highest values occurred in particles of activated sludge (median equals 2.18). This proves that the spatial structure of suspension particles contained in raw sewage was similar to a linear structure, with a large amount of open spaces, while the structure of particles contained in the activated sludge suspension was significantly more complex in the spatial aspect.
The work presents results of solution combustion method utilization for yttria (Y2O3) nanopowder fabrication. Experiments were carried out with four different reducing agents: urea, glycine, citric acid and malonic acid added in stoichiometric ratio. The reactions were investigated using simultaneous DSC/DTA thermal analysis. After synthesis the reaction products were calcined at temperature range of 800-1100°C and analyzed in terms of particle size, specific surface area and morphology. Best results were obtained for nanoyttria powder produced from glycine. After calcination at temperature of 1100°C the powder exhibits in a form of nanometric, globular particles of diameter <100 nm, according to SEM analysis. The dBET for thus obtained powder is 104 nm, however the powder is agglomerated as the particle size measured by dynamic light scattering analysis is 1190 nm (dV50).