Allelopathy is a complex phenomenon which depends on allelochemical concentrations. So, two pot experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of alcoholic fresh shoot extract of Eruca sativa (foliar spray) and E. sativa shoot powder (mixed with soil) on Pisum sativum plants and two associated weeds, Phalaris minor and Beta vulgaris. The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt during two successive winter seasons (2016–2017 and 2017–2018). Ten treatments were applied in this study. Four treatments were applied before sowing, that E. sativa shoot powder was mixed with the soil at rates of 15, 30, 45 and 60 g ⋅ pot–1. The other four treatments of E. sativa alcoholic fresh shoot extract were sprayed twice on both plants and weeds at 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/v) concentrations. Additionally, two untreated treatments, healthy (P. sativum only) and unweeded (untreated infested P. sativum plants with weeds) were applied for comparison. The results indicated that both alcoholic extracts and powder reduced growth of both weeds. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between concentration and weed reduction. Eruca sativa alcoholic extracts increased yield parameters of P. sativum plants. The maximum yield attributes were recorded by spraying of E. sativa alcoholic extract at 20%. On the other hand, it was clearly noticed that the high powder rates affected negatively P. sativum yield parameters. But the lowest powder rate (15 g ⋅ pot–1) stimulated P. sativum yield parameters as compared to unweeded treatment. Chemical analysis of E. sativa shoot powder ensured that the abundant amount of glucosinolates (9.6 μmol ⋅ g–1) and phenolic compounds (46.5 mg ⋅ g–1) may be responsible for its allelopathic effect. In conclusion, spraying of alcoholic fresh shoot extract of E. sativa at 20% (w/v) and mixing E. sativa shoot powder at 15 g · pot–1can be applied as natural bioherbicides for controlling weeds.
The objective of the study was to compare the impact of three systems of multiannual fertilization applied in two long-term field experiments on the content of phenolic compounds in the soil. In the study, both natural (manure, slurry) and mineral (NPK) fertilizers were used, along with combined, organic-and-mineral fertilization. Experiment I was established in 1972 on grey brown podzolic soil; experiment II, in 1973 on brown soil. In both experiments crops were cultivated in a 7-year rotation, with a 75% share of cereals. The experimental samples were taken from the top layer of soil after 36 (experiment I) and 35 (experiment II) years following the establishment of the experiments. It was demonstrated that the presence of phenolic compounds in the soils was significantly dependent on the contents of organic C and total N, type of soil and the type and dose of used fertilizers. In grey brown podzolic soil, the content of total phenolic compounds was at a lower level than the content found in brown soil. Multiannual fertilization contributed to an increase in the content of total phenolic compounds in relation to the values obtained in control objects, which was particularly reflected in the soil originating from objects fertilized with slurry applied at a dose being equivalent to manure in terms of the amount of introduced organic carbon. The percentage of water-soluble phenols in the total content of these compounds in grey brown podzolic soil was at the level of 18.4%, while in brown soil it amounted to 29.1%.
We used DPPH scavenging assays to study the antioxidant activity of three native Polish species of blackberry leaves (Rubus kuleszae Ziel., R. fabrimontanus (Sprib.) Sprib. and R. capitulatus Utsch.). All the studied extracts (methanolic, water, methanolic-water) showed high DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 450.0-186.0 μg/ml). The most effective of the studied species was Rubus kuleszae. Total content of phenolic compounds (70.50-136.04 mg GAE/g) and phenolic acids (14.70-38.26 mg CAE/g) was determined spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant activity correlated positively with total content of phenolic compounds and phenolic acids.