This article considers designing of a renewable electrical power generation system for self-contained homes away from conventional grids. A model based on a technique for the analysis and evaluation of two solar and wind energy sources, electrochemical storage and charging of a housing area is introduced into a simulation and calculation program that aims to decide, based on the optimized results, on electrical energy production system coupled or separated from the two sources mentioned above that must be able to ensure a continuous energy balance at any time of the day. Such system is the most cost-effective among the systems found. The wind system adopted in the study is of the low starting speed that meets the criteria of low winds in the selected region under study unlike the adequate solar resource, which will lead to an examination of its feasibility and profitability to compensate for the inactivity of photovoltaic panels in periods of no sunlight. That is a system with fewer photovoltaic panels and storage batteries whereby these should return a full day of autonomy. Two configurations are selected and discussed. The first is composed of photovoltaic panels and storage batteries and the other includes the addition of a wind system in combination with the photovoltaic system with storage but at a higher investment cost than the first. Consequently, this result proves that is preferable to opt for a purely photovoltaic system supported by the storage in this type of site and invalidates the interest of adding micro wind turbines adapted to sites with low wind resources.
The multicriteria decision process consists of five main steps: definition of the optimisation problem, determination of the weight structure of the decision criteria, design of the evaluation matrix, selection of the optimal evaluation method and ranking of solutions. It is often difficult to obtain the optimal solution to a multicriterion problem. The main reason is the subjective element of the model – the weight functions of the decision criteria. Expert opinions are usually taken into account in their determination. The aim of this article is to present a novel method of minimizing the uncertainty of the weights of the decision criteria using Monte Carlo simulation and method of data reconciliation. The proposed method is illustrated by the example of multicriterion social effectiveness evaluation for electric power supply to a building using renewable energy sources.
The energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules is one of the most important aspects in energetic and economic aspects of the project related to system installations. The efficiency of modules and the electricity produced by photovoltaic conversion in solar modules is affected by many factors, both internal, related to the module structure itself and its technical and external factors related to the energy infrastructure, which includes: cabling, inverters, climate conditions prevailing at the micro-installation location and the orientation and angle of inclination of the solar modules. The installation of photovoltaic modules should be preceded by an energy efficiency analysis, which will help to indicate the optimal solution adapted to the given conditions. The article presents a comparative analysis of the amount of energy produced under real and simulated conditions. Analyzes were made on the basis of research carried out in the Wind and Solar Energy Laboratory located at the AGH University of Science and Technology, data from solar irradiation data-bases and computer software for estimating energy resources. The study examined the correlation of the solar irradiation on the modules and the amount of electricity generated in the photovoltaic module. The electricity produced by the module was compared under real conditions and simulated based on two sources of data. The comparison and analysis of the amount of energy of the module were also made, taking simulated different angles of the module’s inclination into account.
This paper presents the results of measurements of the operation of a photovoltaic system, connected to the power grid. The intensity of solar radiation and the ambient temperature in the location of the installation were simultaneously recorded in different weather conditions on selected days throughout the year. For the combined results the analysis of correlation in terms of efficiency of individual exemplary photovoltaic installation was conducted.
The paper presents the results of the energy analysis of the conversion of solar radiation energy into electrical energy in Polish weather conditions. The effect of sunlight and working temperature on the photovoltaic module on its power curve P = f(U) is shown. STC and NOCT conditions are described for which the manufacturers specify the parameters of the photovoltaic modules. The manufacturers of photovoltaic panels should give the PPV = f(E) characteristic for the different values of the operating temperature of the modules. An analysis of the economic efficiency of a photovoltaic power plant investment of 1 MWp taking the current legal regulations for the three variants into account was presented. Variant I – the investor benefits from the support of public aid of operational only, Variant II – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 1 million, Variant III – the investor benefits from the support of public aid for investment in the amount of PLN 2 million. For all variants, indicators for assessing the economic effectiveness of the investment and the value of the auction price from the maximum price to the price at which the project loses its profitability are determined.
The large variability and unpredictability of energy production from photovoltaic power microinstallations results from the dependence on the current weather conditions. These conditions depend on a number of factors and are variable over the time. Despite this specificity, photovoltaic micro-installations are becoming more and more popular in the world and in Poland. This is mainly due to the fact that the generation of energy from renewable sources has numerous advantages, the energy is free, renewable in time and ecological, and its production on its own gives partial independence from energy supplies from the power grid. In addition, the observed significant prices decrease of solar modules has further accelerated the development of the use of this energy source. Concern for this method of energy production among households has increased significantly in Poland after introducing the prosumer in the legal framework and the use of administrative and financial support. The implemented prosumer mechanisms allowed, for example, the net balancing of the energy consumed and produced by the micro-installation through storage in the power grid. The article describes the problem of balancing sources using solar energy, based on micro-installation used in the household (the so-called prosumer installation). The conducted analyses compared the load profile of a typical household and the energy generation profile from a photovoltaic installation, determining the real balancing formation level of such a system.
Recently, the search for new effective energy production solutions has been focused on the production of electricity using renewable and environmentally friendly carriers. This resulted in an increased interest in PV cells and cogeneration systems. The article looks at the main factors affecting their operational parameters against the background of the development history of subsequent generations of PV cells. Average daily solar radiation and wind velocity in Lodz were characterized. The research was done on a static and tracking system with a total peak power of 15 kWp and a 30 kW microturbine. PV panels are installed on the building of the Institute of Electrical Power Engineering of the Lodz University of Technology and they work as part of DERLab. A microturbine is inside the building. Energy measurements were carried out in 2016 giving grounds for the analysis of energy efficiency and financial analysis of the energy supply in buildings. Energy yields in the static and tracking system as well as percentage coverage of electricity from PV cells and microturbines were assessed. The distribution of monthly savings, annual savings of energy costs and the payback time of the investment costs of the systems subject to the test were determined. The research we have done allows us to say that the energy produced by follow-up modules is about 3 times greater than that generated in stationary modules. On the other hand, the annual savings of energy costs using gas micro-turbines are about 10 times higher than those of lagging panels. The analysis shows that it is possible to determine the profitability of the microturbine and photovoltaic panels use despite large financial outlays. The payback period of investment outlays is about 12 years when using the installation throughout the year.
The presented article is a report on progress in photovoltaic devices and material processing. A cadmium telluride solar cell as one of the most attractive option for thin-film polycrystalline cell constructions is presented. All typical manufacturing steps of this device, including recrystalisation and junction activation are explained. A new potential field of application for this kind of device - the BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaic) is named and discussed. All possible configuration options for this application, according to material properties and exploitation demands are considered. The experimental part of the presented paper is focused on practical implementation of the high- temperature polymer foil as the substrate of the newly designed device by the help of ICSVT (Isothermal Close Space Vapour Transport) technique. The evaluation of the polyester and polyamide foils according to the ICSVT/CSS manufacturing process parameters is described and discussed. A final conclusion on practical verification of these materials is also given.
The ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is widely used for solar modules encapsulation. During lamination process EVA melts and chemical bonds between polymer chains are created. Its number is tightly related to cross-linking degree and it is consider as a major quality reference for module encapsulation. The lamination can be described as a process with two stages: melting and curing where the typical temperature for curing is in the range from 145 to 175°C. In the present study, for the first time, comparison of three commercial available EVA foils with low curing temperature EVA (EVA LOW). For this reason, the temperature of following lamination processes was set from a range from 115 to 175°C. The behavior of cured EVA films under investigation EVA was determined with two approaches: with extraction and with optical methods. The results indicate the applicability of these methods for the EVA cross-linking characterization. Finally, the extraordinary behavior of EVA LOW foil was noticed.
This paper presents maps of spatial distributions of the short circuit current Isc(x,y) and the open circuit voltage Uoc(x,y) of the investigated low cost solar cells. Visible differences in values of these parameters were explained by differences in the serial and shunt resistances determined for different points of solar cells from measurements of I–V characteristics. The spectral dependence of the photo voltage of solar cell is also shown, discussed and interpreted in the model of amorphous and crystal silicon.
This research presents a comparative study for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methodologies for a photovoltaic (PV) system. A novel hybrid algorithm golden section search assisted perturb and observe (GSS-PO) is proposed to solve the problems of the conventional PO (CPO). The aim of this new methodology is to boost the efficiency of the CPO. The new algorithm has a very low convergence time and a very high efficiency. GSS-PO is compared with the intelligent nature-inspired multi-verse optimization (MVO) algorithm by a simulation validation. The simulation study reveals that the novel GSS-PO outperforms MVO under uniform irradiance conditions and under a sudden change in irradiance.