The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intensity and character of the inflammatory reaction caused by an innovative polyester-polyurethane vascular prosthesis implanted into the abdominal aorta of 9 Beagle dogs aged 1-3 years. At 6 and 12 months post implantation the prostheses were removed and tissues samples were examined using 2 methods: histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Histology slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) were evaluated for the intensity of inflammation by observing the density of inflammatory cells and graded 1 to 4 (1- light inflammation, 4 – severe inflammation). The pro-inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and two anti-inflammatory mediators, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra), and interleukin 10 (IL10), were also assessed in the tissue samples by IHC methods. Mean (n=5) inflammation grade in H&E slides at 6 months post-implantation (6Mpost) was 2 and mean (n=4) inflammation grade at 12 months (12Mpost) was almost 3. IHC staining showed that TNFα and IL1ra in tissue samples obtained from 6Mpost dogs were expressed at the same intensity indicating equal pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. However, in the 12Mpost tissues TNFα was expressed more intensely than IL1ra and IL10. Moreover, in 2 dogs at 12Mpost, there were signs of infection assessed on the basis of neutrophil infiltration in the prostheses. In conclusion, the assessment of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNFα and anti-inflammatory mediators, such as IL1ra and IL10, can help to interpret the intensity of the inflammatory process directed at synthetic prostheses.
The results from the experimental research are presented in the abstract. The experimental research involved utilization of the sludge from the mine water treatment plant of Coal Quarry ČSA/Czechoslovak Army/ (hereinafter “ČSA”) and Coal Quarry Jana Švermy (hereinafter “JŠ”) in the segment of thermal insulation mortars. The mine water treatment is described below including chemical and mineralogical sludge composition as the additional component of the binding material in the polyurethane thermal insulation mortars. Furthermore the composition of experimental mixtures of the thermal insulation polyurethane mortar is presented in the work and its physical-mechanical properties. The monitored elements included the strength characteristics, heat conductivity coefficient λ, and water vapour diffusion coefficient μ.
Titanium nitride (TiN) is regarded as a potential biomaterial for blood-contact applications. TiN thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with the Nd:YAG laser on biologically applied polyurethane. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of 250 nm thick films revealed columnar structure. Such films were observed to be brittle, which led to crack formation and secondary nucleation of microcolumn. TEM studies showed a kinetic mechanism of growth (columnar) in films of 250 nm thickness. It was stated that thinner films were much smoother and uniform than the thicker ones, which could be associated with the surface diffusion mechanism to appear. In order to improve the coatings elasticity, the thickness was reduced to 50 nm, which limited the deposition mechanism operation to the early stage. TEM cross-section observation revealed elastic properties of thin films. A biological test showed that TiN surface film produced on polyurethane is characterized by good biocompatibility and decreased surface affinity for cell adhesion. Films of 0.25 and 0.5 1m thick of TiN were selected for theoretical finite element modelling (FEM) using ADINA program. The micro cracks formation predicted in simulation was verified by phenomena observed in microstructure examinations.
Considering the environmental pollution caused by waste rubber, some measures should be taken to improve the utilization rate of waste rubber. In this study, the effect of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) particles in the polyurethane (PU) foams on sound absorption behavior is investigated for improving sound environment within vehicles and reducing the environment pollution. EPDM of different contents and hardness are used as fillers for producing foams with different pore morphologies and sound absorption properties. The results show adds EPDM to foam would produce smaller pores, higher density and bigger air-flow resistivity. Simultaneously, there are better sound absorption properties of the PU foam composites in the medium frequency region and the better value can be obtained at the lower frequency with the content of EPDM increasing. The hardness of EPDM also shows better influence on sound absorption properties, especially in the medium frequency region. It means the foam pore morphologies have influence on sound absorption properties.