The computational intelligence tool has major contribution to analyse the properties of materials without much experimentation. The B4C particles are used to improve the quality of the strength of materials. With respect to the percentage of these particles used in the micro and nano, composites may fix the mechanical properties. The different combinations of input parameters determine the characteristics of raw materials. The load, content of B4C particles with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% will determine the wear behaviour like CoF, wear rate etc. The properties of materials like stress, strain, % of elongation and impact energy are studied. The temperature based CoF and wear rate is analysed. The temperature may vary between 30°C, 100°C and 200°C. In addition, the CoF and wear rate of materials are predicted with respect to load, weight % of B4C and nano hexagonal boron nitride %. The intelligent tools like Neural Networks (BPNN, RBNN, FL and Decision tree) are applied to analyse these characteristics of micro / nano composites with the inclusion of B4C particles and nano hBN % without physically conducting the experiments in the Lab. The material properties will be classified with respect to the range of input parameters using the computational model.
The present investigation has been made to assess the influence of B4C reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V matrix prepared by powder metallurgy route. High energy ball milling was used to prepare the composites. Cylindrical preforms were prepared using suitable die set assembly. The green preforms were sintered in the muffle furnace at 900°C for 1 h. Further the preforms were cooled inside the furnace till the room temperature has attained. SEM with EDS mapping analysis was used to evaluate the morphology and elemental confirmation of the prepared composite. The density and hardness of the samples are determined using Archimedes principle and Rockwell hardness testing machine. The wear resistance of the samples was determined by employing a pin on disc apparatus. The hardness of the composites (Ti-6Al-4V /10B4C) was increased while comparing to the base material (Ti-6Al-4V) which is attributed to the presence of hard ceramic phase. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) five level central composite design approach was accustomed and it minimised the amount of experimental conditions and developed mathematical models among the key process parameters namely wt. % of B4C, applied load and sliding distances to forecast the abrasive response of Specific Wear Rate (SWR) and Coefficient of Friction (CoF). Analysis of variance was used to check the validity of the developed model. The optimum parameters of specific wear rate and coefficient of friction were identified.
The present investigation aims at fabricating a functionally graded Al-6Cr-Y2O3 composite and its microstructural and property characterization. Al-6Cr-alloys with varying percentage of Y2O3 (5-10 vol. %) have been used to fabricate FGM by powder metallurgy route. The samples were subsequently subjected to solution treatment at 610°C for 4 h followed by artificially aged at 310°C for 4 h. The microstructure, hardness and wear behavior of these FGM have been evaluated. FGM exhibited superior hardness (360 ± 5 VHN) as compared to the unprocessed composites (220 ± 5 VHN) due to the uniform dispersion of Y2O3 particles. Wear resistance of Al-6Cr-10 Y2O3 FGM were compared that of with pure Al-6Cr alloy by dry abrasive wear test. Al-6Cr-10 Y2O3 FGM composites were found to exhibit higher wear resistance with the minimum wear rate of 0.009 mm3/m compared to the Al- 6Cr alloy wear rate 0.02 mm3/m.
Hot Isostatic Pressing elaboration of Norem02, an austenitic-ferritic hypereutectoid stainless steel, leads to the formation of an austenitic matrix with a mixture of acicular M7C3 and globular M23C6 carbides. The sintering tests, carried out by using an AISI 304L container, showed that the final microstructure and the carbides’ distribution of the HIPed Norem02 are strongly influenced by the process parameters (heating and cooling rate, sintering time, holding temperature and pressure) and by the particles’ size, microstructure and phase distribution of the initial powder. The morphological, crystallographic and chemical analysis of the sintered samples were completed by comprehension of the diffusion phenomena at the Norem02/304L interface, enabling the establishment of a correlation between elaboration process and final microstructure.
The preliminary results of the application of open-celled glassy-carbon foam (Cof) in magnesium matrix composites processed by the powder metallurgy method were presented. For the component consolidation, compaction with vertically-torsional vibration and hot-pressing were applied. For the material characterization, the microstructure examination LM and SEM with EDS was employed and also, the porosity and microhardness were measured. An influence of the carbon foam cells’ size on the composite porosity and microhardness was revealed. Additionally, a generation of a few micrometer thin and differently shaped MgO inclusions was observed. Differences in the oxide phase amount, size and shape in the magnesium matrix measured by the quantitative metallography method in the cross-sectioned composite elements were stated. With an increase of the distance from the composite roller top, an increase of the MgO content and microhardness was noticed.