Basing on Polish experience of about 5 years (since the presence of the African swine fever (ASF) in this country, starting from February 17th, 2014) and in accordance with literature the importance of the disease in wild boar is charaterised. ASF belongs to the most dangerous, very contagious diseases occurring in domestic swine and wild boar in Eurasia. In Europe, including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Belgium ASF is existing at present and was diagnosed for short time in the frame of the Eurasian pandemy. There is a serious concern of spreading of the virus of ASF (ASFV) to other countries of Europe, not only by wild boar. However the reservoir of ASFV in this animal is playing a very important role in the maintenance of the virus and infection of pigs. Long lasting existence of ASFV in the environmnent is connected with the very high resistance to antiviral environmental factors. Following the lack of an effective immunogenic vaccine against ASF the disease can only be controlled by administrative measures. Additionally the important and recommended procedure is the significant reduction of the wild boar population. Probability of eradication of ASFV from wild boar is increased after adding quick carcass removal simultaneously by respecting biosecurity rules. If effectively implemented, fencing is more useful to delineating zones rather than adding substantially to increased efficiency of ASF control. However, segments of fencing will be particularly usefull in theses areas, where carcasses removal or intensive hunting is difficult to implement.
The article presents a method of designing single-chamber rectangular detention reservoirs based on nomographs connecting the parameters and the shape of the inflow with the reservoir hydrograph (triangular, described by the power function and described by the gamma distribution) as well as the hydraulic characteristics of the accumulation chamber and the orifice. The preparation of nomographs involved using the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) program with the application of numerical calculations’ results of a differential equation for the stormwater volume balance. The performed analyses confirm a high level of similarity between the results of calculating the reservoir volume obtained by using the above mentioned program and using the developed nomographs. The examples of calculations presented in the paper confirm the application aspects of the discussed method of designing the detention reservoir. Moreover, based on the conducted analyses it was concluded that the inflow hydrograph described by the gamma distribution has the greatest impact on the reservoir’s storage volume, whereas the hydrograph whose shape in the rise and recession phases is described by the power function has the smallest effect.
The main scientific goal of this work is the presentation of the role of selected geophysical methods (Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR and Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT) to identify water escape zones from retention reservoirs. The paper proposes a methodology of geophysical investigations for the identification of water escape zones from a retention fresh water lake (low mineralised water). The study was performed in a lake reservoir in Upper Silesia. Since a number of years the administrators of the lake have observed a decreasing water level, a phenomenon that is not related to the exploitation of the object. The analysed retention lake has a maximal depth between 6 and 10 m, depending on the season. It is located on Triassic carbonate rocks of the Muschelkalk facies. Geophysical surveys included measurements on the water surface using ground penetration radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods. The measurements were performed from watercrafts made of non-metal materials. The prospection reached a depth of about 1 to 5 m below the reservoir bottom. Due to large difficulties of conducting investigations in the lake, a fragment with an area of about 5,300 m 2, where service activities and sealing works were already commenced, was selected for the geophysical survey. The scope of this work was: (1) field geophysical research (Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR and Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT with geodesic service), (2) processing of the obtained geophysical research results, (3) modelling of GPR and ERT anomalies on a fractured water reservoir bottom, and (4) interpretation of the obtained results based on the modelled geophysical anomalies. The geophysical surveys allowed for distinguishing a zone with anomalous physical parameters in the area of the analysed part of the retention lake. ERT surveys have shown that the water escape zone from the reservoir was characterised by significantly decreased electrical resistivities. Diffraction hyperboles and a zone of wave attenuation were observed on the GPR images in the lake bottom within the water escape zone indicating cracks in the bottom of the water reservoir. The proposed methodology of geophysical surveys seems effective in solving untypical issues such as measurements on the water surface.
The paper presents the analysis of structure of fish communities in five small postexcavation reservoirs situated in Tyśmienica valley (Polesie Lubelskie). Special attention was paid to the quality of population of lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus. By the time the extensive drainage works were done in the 60s and 70s of the 20th century, Polesie Lubelskie was rich in small water reservoirs. As a result of drainage of wetlands, many of them disappeared. Among those which still exist, most of them are located in the Tyśmienica valley. The study revealed that the studied reservoir inhabited seven fish species representing two families. It was also found that structure of dominance and biomass structure is very diverse. In each reservoir the dominant species was different. The lake minnow E. percnurus was determined in three reservoires.
Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Chodelka river was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2016. In the analyzed water bodies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (4 species) and Esocidae, Cobitidae, Peri-cidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish one protected species (M. fossilis) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: R. rutilus (all five reservoir) and C. auratus. The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, R. rutilus and C. auratus.
The sorption isotherm and sorption kinetics of NH4+ by the Fen River reservoir sediment were investigated for a better understanding of the NH4+ sorption characteristics and parameters. The results showed that Q (adsorption content) increased with the increase of Ceq (equilibrium concentration), sorption isotherms could be described by Freundlich equation (R2 from 0.97 to 0.99). Cation exchange capacity (CEC) had a significant correlation with the parameters K and n (R2 was 0.85 and 0.95, respectively). The ENC0 (Ceq as Q was zero) of S1, S2, S3 and S4 was 1.25, 0.57, 1.15 and 1.14 mg L-1, respectively, and they were less than the NH4+ concentrations in reservoir water. The sediments released NH4+ to the Fen River reservoir water and acted as a pollution source, in the form of complex and heterogeneous adsorbents. The NH4+ adsorption kinetic process was composed of ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ reaction patterns and could be fitted using both Elovich equation and Pseudo second-equation. More than one-step may be involved in the NH4+ sorption processes, and interior diffusion was not dominant ion action.
Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Wieprz--Krzna Canal was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2014. In the analyzed water bod-ies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (5 species) and Esocidae, Cobi-tidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish two protected species (M. fossilis and R. sericeus amarus) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: I. nebulosus (all five reservoir), C. auratus (Jabłoń Center 2, Jabłoń Church and Jabłoń Firlej-Ostrówek), and R. rutilus (Jabłoń West and Jabłoń Firlej-Ostrówek). The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, I. nebulosus and C. auratus Moreover, one of the purpose of the study was searching for a new stands of lake minnow. However, the species was not recorded in fish communities of any of the reservoirs, despite of the ecological state of reservoirs indicating the potential habitat for lake minnow.
While modeling water dynamics in dam reservoirs, it is usually assumed that the flow involves the whole water body. It is true for shallow reservoirs (up to several meters of depth) but may be false for deeper ones. The possible presence of a thermocline creates an inactive bottom layer that does not move, causing all the discharge to be carried by the upper strata. This study compares the results of hydrodynamic simulations performed for the whole reservoir to the ones carried out for the upper strata only. The validity of a non-stratified flow approximation is then discussed.
The paper presents the results of studies on the influence of the 2010 Vistula flood on the humification process in the bottom sediments of the Goczałkowice Reservoir in southern Poland. Due to its location in the vicinity of farmlands, forests and urbanized areas, the Goczałkowice Reservoir is characterized by amplified and intense humification processes within its sediments. The studies were focused on the determining the influence of the flood wave containing organic and inorganic suspensions on these processes. Humic acids were analyzed using two spectroscopic methods: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Application of these methods allowed to determine the values of free radicals and of the g-factor, which are indicators of oxidation, aromatization and maturation of humic acids during the humification process, as well as the value of the 1650/1720 ratio, reflecting the dissociation of the COOH group to COO− and the formation of complexes of transitional metals with humic acids during the humification process.
The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of the Blachownia reservoir (South Poland) was investigated. Spatial variability of PAH concentrations in the longitudinal profi le of the tank was determined. PAHs in samples were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS QP-2010 Plus Shimadzu) using an internal standard. Concentrations ranged from 0.103 μg/L to 2.667 μg/L (Σ16 PAHs) in water samples and from 2.329 mg/kg d.w. to 9.078 mg/kg d.w. (Σ16 PAHs) in sediment samples. A pollution balance was calculated and it was estimated that the infl ow load was 17.70 kg PAHs during the year and the outfl ow load was 9.30 kg PAHs per year. Accumulation of about 50% of the annual PAH loads (8.90 kg) is a threat to the ecological condition of the ecosystem. It was calculated that the PAH loads in bottom sediment were about 80 kg, which limits their economic use. Improvement of the ecological status of this type of reservoir can be achieved by removing the sediment. Analysis of the diagnostic ratios obtained for selected PAHs showed that the potential sources of PAH emissions in small agricultural – forest catchments can be combustion of a coal, wood, plant material (low emission, forest fi res, burning grass, etc.). Transportation is also signifi cant.
Sediments of two dam reservoirs in SE Poland, Zalew Zemborzycki (ZZ) and Brody Iłżeckie (BI) were studied. The sediments from both reservoirs were sampled in the transects perpendicular to the shoreline, at the river inflow and the frontal dam. The total concentration of Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Ni was determined by ICP-EAS method after the sample digestion in the mixture of concentrated HNO3 and HClO4 acids. The statistical analyses: value intervals, mean values, variation coefficient, the median and the skewed distribution were performed. To estimate differences between the means for transects, Tukey’s test was applied with least significant difference (LSD) determination. The maps of the metal spatial distribution were drawn and sediment quality according to the geochemical and ecotoxicological criteria evaluated. Differences between the reservoirs in terms of heavy metals concentration in bottom sediments, and regularities in their spatial distribution were found. In the ZZ sediments the concentration was at the level of geochemical background (Zn, Cr), slightly (Cd, Cu, Ni) or moderately (Pb) contaminated sediments. The metal concentration in the sediments of the BI was up to eight times higher as compared to the ZZ. Moreover, sediments from the BI reservoir showed a greater variability of metal concentration than those from ZZ, which resulted from the dredging operation performed in the part of the reservoir. Metal concentration in sediments of the dredged part was ca. 2–5 times lower than in the undredged one, which indicates that after the dredging operation, accumulation of these metals was slight. The concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd from the undredged part of BI were at the level of contaminated sediments and exceeded the probable effects level (PEL). In the ZZ, the greatest accumulation of metals occurred in the upper part of the reservoir and at the frontal dam, and the lowest in the middle part of the reservoir. In BI, the lower outflow of water in this reservoir caused a lower metal concentration in the sediments at the frontal dam, as compared with the other sediments in the undredged part of the reservoir. The results indicate that in small and shallow reservoirs, areas of accumulation of heavy metals depend on such factors as a parent river current, reservoir depth, water waving, reservoir shape (narrowing, coves/bays), and type of water outflow.
To investigate and assess the effects of land use and its changes on concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Fe) in the tributary of drinking water reservoir catchment, soils of different land use types (forest, arable land, meadows and pastures, residential areas), suspended sediment and bottom sediment were collected. Heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The metal distribution pattern was observed, where Zn and Cd could be considered as main metal contaminants. The variation in the concentration level of Zn and Cd in studied soils showed the impact of pollution from anthropogenic activities. Also some seasonal variations were visible among the suspended sediment and bottom sediment samples which could be associated with land agricultural practices or meteorological conditions. The sediment ﬁngerprints approach used for determining sources of the suspension in the catchment showed (Kruskal-Wallis H test, p<0.05), that only Mn and Ni were not able to be distinguished among the potential sediment sources. A multiple linear regression model described the relationship between suspended sediment and 4 types of soil samples. The results related suspended composition mostly to the samples from the residential land use. Considering the contemporary trend of observed changes in land use resulting in conversion of agricultural areas into residential and service structures these changes can be essential for the contamination of aquatic environment. This situation is a warning sign due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization and intensive agriculture in this region what can signiﬁcantly affect the drinking water quality.
Multidimensional exploratory techniques, such as the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), have been used to analyze long-term changes in the ﬂow regime and quality of water of the lowland dam reservoir Turawa (south-west Poland) in the catchment of the Mała Panew river (a tributary of the Odra). The paper proves that during the period of 1998–2016 the Turawa reservoir was equalizing the river’s water ﬂow. Moreover, various physicochemical water quality indicators were analyzed at three measurement points (at the tributary’s mouth into the reservoir, in the reservoir itself and at the outﬂow from the reservoir). The water quality assessment was performed by analyzing physicochemical indicators such as water temperature, TSS, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD5, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, N, PO43-, P, electrolytic conductivity, DS, SO42- and Cl- . Furthermore, the correlations between all these water quality indicators were analyzed statistically at each measurement point, at the statistical signiﬁ cance level of p ≤ 0.05. PCA was used to determine the structures between these water quality variables at each measurement point. As a result, a theoretical model was obtained that describes the regularities in the relationships between the indicators. PCA has shown that biogenic indicators have the strongest inﬂuence on the water quality in the Mała Panew. Lastly, the differences between the averages of the water quality indicators of the inﬂowing and of the outﬂowing water were considered and their signiﬁcance was analyzed. PCA unveiled structure and complexity of interconnections between river ﬂow and water quality. The paper shows that such statistical methods can be valuable tools for developing suitable water management strategies for the catchment and the reservoir itself.
Popular statistical techniques, such as Spearman's rank correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to analyze a large set of water quality data of the Rybnik Reservoir generated during semiannual monitoring. Water samples collected at 9 sampling sites located along the main axis of the reservoir were tested for 14 selected parameters: concentrations of co-occurring elements, ions and physicochemical parameters. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of those parameters on inorganic arsenic occurrence in Rybnik Reservoir water by means of multivariate statistical methods. The spatial distribution of arsenic in Rybnik Power Station reservoir was also included. Inorganic arsenic As(III), As(V) concentrations were determined by hydride generation method (HG-AAS) using SpectrAA 880 spectrophotometer (Varian) coupled with a VGA-77 system for hydride generation and ECT-60 electrothermal furnace. Spearman's rank correlation matrix was used in order to find existing correlations between total inorganic arsenic (AsTot) and other parameters. The results of this analysis suggest that As was positively correlated with PO43-; Fe and TDS. PCA confirmed these observations. Principal component analysis resulted in three PC's explaining 57% of the total variance. Loading values for each component indicate that the processes responsible for As release and distribution in Rybnik Reservoir water were: leaching from bottom sediments together with other elements like Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, Ca (PC1) and co-precipitation with PO43-, Fe and Mn (PC3) regulated by physicochemical properties like T and pH (PC2). Finally, multiple linear regression model has been developed. This model incorporates only 8 (T, pH, PO43-, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, TDS) out of initial 14 variables, as the independent predictors of total As contamination level. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for analysis and interpretation of complex environmental data sets.