CSR on Mazovia – Institutional Dimension. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined as the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society. For the effective implementation of this concept are very important institutions, understood as a permanent (legal, organizational and customary) determinants of repetitive human behaviour and peopleto- people interaction. Institutions can therefore be both organisations that promotes this concept and CSR projects or strategies. The aim of the article is to review the thesis that the Mazovia is the driving force of the development of CSR in Poland, carried out on the basis of desk and web research. By evaluating the degree of institutionalisation of CSR in Mazovia, based on an analysis of the activities of the various sectors in this field, it was found that most activities for the implementation of this concept is undertaken in Mazovia, and many of them have coverage nationwide.
The aim of the article is to show the dependence of what is our/mine and Other/Alien in thinking about conflicts around investment projects. Investments related to the development of space and resources of the Earth, especially if they cause any (real or potential) changes, generate negative emotions which often become the embers of conflict. Paradoxically, participation in such conflict may benefit the parties involved. Positive outcomes include: meeting needs (attention and significance), fulfilling (new) social roles, learning about other points of view, finding themselves in new social groups or embedded in local communities. Living in the social theater of life, each person plays different roles, which can lead to tension and a sense of ambivalence. In this situation, the individual has a sense of identity dispersion, being able to be simultaneously in several groups opposing each other. The conflict surrounding the Orzesze mining project can serve as an example here. This and other examples show that what is mine and the Other/Alien, with all its separateness, is, however, more or less intertwined with each other. So, the phenomenon of mutual dependence between the Other/Alien and conflict can provide an interesting perspective when looking at conflicts in managing the space and resources of the Earth. Conflicts, in particular mining-related ones, are an extremely complex phenomenon with great potential – both negative and positive. The appreciation of the benefits mentioned in the article, which result from the mutual dependence of the parties involved in the conflict along with their readiness to go outside their comfort zones, provide an opportunity for mutual understanding and reaching agreement which could lead to a positive change consistent with the idea of sustainable development. In this complex situation, the incorporation of not only sociological but also psychological aspects becomes an important element of the states’ and companies’ resources policy and cannot be neglected any more.
Karl Marx (and also Friedrich Engels, by the way) was – contrary to his own opinion – an author of several utopias which played a role in the 20th century. The question (which is of both historical-philosophical and historical-empirical character) therefore arises how important this role was. The author focuses on the characteristics of Marxian utopias, and specifically – on their axiological content and current relevance. According to the author, Marx’s utopias can be a convenient starting point for searching for various projects (political, economic, technological etc.) necessary to cope with global challenges that mankind faces in our time. The author is also considering Marx’s motives for a critical approach to utopias and points to those of them which in his opinion should be accepted, while distinguishing them from others which should be rejected.
The number of human cases of salmonellosis in the EU was 94,625 in 2015. Considering the source of these infections, Salmonella spp. was most frequently detected in broiler chicken meat and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) was the most commonly reported serovar. The efficacy of probiotics in limiting Salmonella spp. infection in poultry has been demonstrated in numerous papers. The administration of probiotics at the level of primary production reduces the risk of contamination of poultry food products with Salmonella spp. A study was carried out in order to determine the potential for reducing the Salmonella spp. population in broiler chickens with the use of the Lavipan (JHJ, Poland) probiotic that comprised selected stains of lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cervisae. Salmonella spp.-free broiler chickens were divided into two groups and received the same feed with (group L) or without (group C) the probiotic throughout the experiment. All day-old chickens were infected per os with SE. Samples of cecum content were collected 2, 4, and 6 weeks after SE infection and pectoral muscles were collected 6 weeks following SE infection for the evaluation of the SE population number. Serum samples for serological examinations were collected 6 weeks after infection. Six weeks after infection, the number of SE-positive cecal samples was lower in the L group (12.5% positive) in comparison to the C group (87.5%). Similar results were demonstrated for the muscle samples (25% in contrast to 87.5%). At the same time, in both cases, the SE CFU/g was significantly lower in the L group. The results of our study indicate that Lavipan was capable of reducing the population of SE in the gastrointestinal tract, which eventually improved the hygienic parameters of the pectoral muscles. Four weeks after infection, SE was not detected in any of the experimental groups. In both groups, no specific anti-SE antibodies were detected.
The article aims to briefly present Peter Strawson’s view expressed in his seminal article Freedom and Resentment (1962). We start with certain remarks on the position of the article among other works by Strawson and on reasons of its vast popularity manifested by many modern authors interested in the issues of responsibility or free will. Next, we move on to the issue of interpretation of the central thought of Strawson’s work. To do this, we present the most common interpretation, which at the first glance seems to express the core of Strawson’s view in a fairly convincing way. Then we adopt a slightly different perspective on the main line of reasoning in the article in question and in this context we try to interpret its general message. We argue that the main topic of the article is the philosophical issue of punishment. For this is the problem which – if we are right – is the proper object of the debate between an optimist who is also a compatibilist and a pessimist who is also a libertarian.
Freedom and Resentment (1962), written by Peter Frederick Strawson, is one of the most influential papers in 20th century investigations regarding the problem of free will. An interesting criticism of that work was proposed by his son, Galen Strawson, who analyzed and rejected his father’s view, called the theory of reactive attitudes. In my paper I reconstruct the views of Peter Strawson and present counterarguments put forward by Galen Strawson. In the summary I suggest, following Robert Kane, that the disagreement may reflect some important changes in analytic philosophy.
Industry 4.0 and the associated idea of society 4.0 pose specific challenges for the concept of sustainable development. These challenges relate, inter alia, to responsibility, in which the changes to date have overall entailed: • a transition from ex post responsibility to ex ante responsibility (H. Jonas); • a transition from individual responsibility to corporate social responsibility. In the context of society 4.0 there is a need for shared responsibility. The problem of justice and therefore the implementation of sustainable development not only becomes an open problem, but also requires constant updating and specifi c optimisation.
The paper’s authors undertake the reflection on the stages of the evolution of Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s views on the Church and its role as it is played in the lives of its singular members and in the context of the Reformation’s ethical heritage. One can distinguish among three stages of the Bonhoefferian ecclesiology, deepening his vision of the Church. As far as the first one is considered, the Church is defined as the spiritual community of believers, outside of which salvation is impossible. At the second stage the German theologian accentuates the sinfulness of man as a member of the Church. Its recognition constitutes the basis for the transformation that can take place in the human individual due to accepting Christ into oneself. The third stage is stepping into the world of „before-final” matters in the full responsibility for the choices made by particular members of the ecclesial community. The Church, as Bonhoeffer saw it, was supposed to support itself on strong pillars: on freedom, personal responsibility, imitating Christ, neighbourly love, on sacraments and Gospel. In this aspect Bonhoeffer was the faithful continuator of the Reformation program.
A lot of interest has recently been put into the so-called ‘virtual cryptographic currencies’, commonly known as cryptocurrencies, along with its surrounding market. The blockchain technology that stands behind them is also becoming increasingly popular. From the perspective of maintaining energy security, an important issue is the process of mining individual cryptocurrencies, which is associated with very high energy consumption. This operation is usually related to the approval of new blocks in the blockchain network and attaching them to the chain. This process is carried out through performing complex mathematical operations by various devices, which in turn require high power and respectively consume a lot of energy. The impact of cryptocurrency miners on the power and energy demand level might gradually increase over time, therefore this issue shouldn’t be ignored. Comparing the above information in parallel with the growing need for providing demand side response (DSR) services in the Polish Power System, raises the question whether devices used for mining cryptocurrencies can be used for the purpose of balancing the power system. This paper presents an analysis of the possibility to provide the demand side response services by groups of cryptocurrency miners users. The analysis was carried out taking basic functional, technological and economical aspects of these devices’ operations into account.
The aim of the article is to examine the specific properties of language actions in terms of their moral evaluation. The author starts from the question whether responsibility for words has the same meaning as responsibility for a physical action. In her analysis, the author deliberates whether in both cases the same rules and criteria are applicable. Referring to the classical theory of speech acts proposed by John L. Austin, who introduced a fundamental division into constative and performative utterances and went on to distinguish illocutionary effects from perlocutionary consequences of speech acts, the author investigates how far a subject is responsible for the words he uses.
The paper focuses on two research objectives. First, it aims to critically examine a reductio ad absurdum argument against incompatibilism whose main themes can be found in Peter F. Strawson’s Freedom and Resentment. The doubts raised about the argument are inspired by a thought experiment based on fictitious Ludovico’s technique described in Anthony Burgess’s novel A Clockwork Orange. The second objective consists in outlining a version of the compatibilist stance – the version which is immune to Strawson’s objections against the traditional rendering of compatibilism and enables deeper understanding of various possible interpretations of the controversy between compatibilists and their opponents. The proposed position includes a hypothesis on the function of the attitude of participation and the expressivist explications of the concepts crucial for the practice of ascribing moral responsibility. The important feature of the analyses in question is the central role of the states of mind whose content are plans for reactive moral sentiments.
The article presents Peter F. Strawson’s remarks on the free will debate, which he has presented in the essay ‘Freedom and Resentment’. Strawson avoids taking a stance on the question whether the thesis of determinism is correct. Instead he shows the essential difficulties and far reaching consequences of acknowledging this thesis. He recognizes the inseparable connection between freedom and responsibility in the philosophy after Kant. He consequently questions whether we really understand what it would mean to claim that determinism is true. He focuses on what he calls ‘reactiv attitudes’ triggered by the way in which other people behave toward us. Their behavior evokes emotional reaction in us – gratitude, respect, curiosity, but also distrust, resentment, disappointment. Those emotional responses are not purely subjective and they underlie moral judgments and complicated interpersonal relations. We suspend our reactive attitudes towards animals, very small children or people that we think are mentally ill. Instead we adopt objective (psychiatric, scientific) attitudes towards them. But to acknowledge the thesis of determinism implicates that we should treat all people this way. The paper is not so much concerned with an analysis of advantages and weak points of Strawson’s version of compatibilism, but focuses instead on the originality of his contribution to the debate on free will and on his brilliant treatment of reactive attitudes.
Thin plates, in the form of individual panels or whole device casings, often separate the noise source from its recipients. It would be very desirable if the panels could effectively block the sound transmission preventing noise from further propagation. This is especially challenging to achieve at low frequencies. A promising approach, intensively developed in the recent years, is to employ active control methods by adding sensors and actuators, and running a control algorithm. However, if the noise is narrow-band, an alternative passive solution originally developed by the authors can be applied. It is based on appropriately located passive elements which can be used to alter the frequency response of the vibrating structure thus improving its sound insulation properties. Such an approach is referred to as the frequency response shaping method. The purpose of this paper is to further develop this method and apply it to a device casing panel. The efficiency of the method is evaluated by simulation and real experiments. Appropriate cost functions and mathematical models are formulated and used to optimise the arrangement of passive elements mounted to the plate, enhancing its sound insulation properties at the given frequency range. The results are reported, and advantages and limits of the method are pointed out and discussed.
The application of immune serum is one of the most efficient method used formerly in the protection of raised piglets’/weaners’ health . The objective of the study was to determine specific antibody response during hyperimmunization of fatteners with a self-prepared subunit vaccine, and to propose production method of immune serum against Gram-negative bacteria antigens. The vaccine was administered every two weeks, 4 times. Individual and pooled serum samples were assayed for IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Histophilus somni recombinant Hsp60, H.somni rOMP40 and Pasteurella multocida LPS. Additionally total serum IgG and haptoglobin concentrations were measured. Two weeks after the first vaccination IgM antibody raised significantly against H.s. rOMP40 and LPS, whereas after 4 weeks it increased against rHsp60 antigens. Anti-LPS IgM antibody raised up stepwise till the end of the observation, but IgM antibody against H.s. rHsp60 and H.s. rOMP40 decreased in further samplings. A significant raise in IgG class H.s. rHsp60- -antibody was found 4 weeks after the first immunization and a similar raise against two remain- ing antigens after 6 weeks. The intensity of the reaction increased till the end of the experiment. The raise in IgA antibody level was observed only for H.s. rHsp60 antigen. Clinically observed, proper animal health and welfare were confirmed by haptoglobin concentration, which remained in physiological range. At least 4 booster doses were necessary to obtain hyperimmune serum containing a high level of antibodies against examined antigens. The number of immunizations influenced response profiles for specific IgM, IgG, IgA antibodies.
Specific requirements are designed and implemented in electronic and telecommunication systems for received signals, especially high-frequency ones, to examine and control the signal radiation. However, as a serious drawback, no special requirements are considered for the transmitted signals from a subsystem. Different industries have always been struggling with electromagnetic interferences affecting their electronic and telecommunication systems and imposing significant costs. It is thus necessary to specifically investigate this problem as every device is continuously exposed to interferences. Signal processing allows for the decomposition of a signal to its different components to simulate each component. Radiation control has its specific complexities in systems, requiring necessary measures from the very beginning of the design. This study attempted to determine the highest radiation from a subsystem by estimating the radiation fields. The study goal was to investigate the level of radiations received and transmitted from the adjacent systems, respectively, and present methods for control and eliminate the existing radiations. The proposed approach employs an algorithm which is based on multi-component signals, defect, and the radiation shield used in the subsystem. The algorithm flowchart focuses on the separation and of signal components and electromagnetic interference reduction. In this algorithm, the detection process is carried out at the bounds of each component, after which the separation process is performed in the vicinity of the different bounds. The proposed method works based on the Fourier transform of impulse functions for signal components decomposition that was employed to develop an algorithm for separation of the components of the signals input to the subsystem.
The offshore Oil & Gas Industry is very important to the European Union economy. Therefore it must be properly monitored and protected, and legal regulations must be in place. Directive 2013/30/EU implemented on July 18, 2018 obliged EU Member States as well as operators and owners of oil and gas related activities in sea areas to implement solutions reducing the risk of major accidents, minor accidents and dangerous situations. The purpose of the article is to identify all the possible hazards that may occur during oil and gas operations in marine areas and attempt to assess the risk along with providing effective responses in the event of its occurrence by preparing appropriate plans for responding to the situation. For the completion of the main purpose of the work the provisions of Directive 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on safety of offshore oil and gas operations were presented and analyzed using the Hazard Identification method, the analysis of available reports prepared by the European Commission, classification bodies and own experience obtained while working in the offshore industry during searching, drilling and oil and gas production located under the seabed at the Polish Economic Executive Zone. The study presents numerous analyses and comments, which were presented in the form of graphs and tables, based on international reports and own experience gained while working in an offshore company.
Axiological chaos and unsustainable man’s acting in a contemporary world has led him to a total confusion. He constantly acts toward environmental and cultural degradation. Also in social dimension a permanent and “general” crisis dominates. The crisis is rooted on multi-category stratification and based on post-truth models of interpersonal communication in traditional and virtual realities. Neoliberal model of economical conquest, in turn, effects unsustainability in economic sphere. Thus, in common reception – for the most people in the world – such situation has become unbearable. So, it is the educators’ duty to look for – with the intention to put into practise – such concepts and pedagogies, which could prepare the whole global society to real – not declaratory false – co-creation of its life in the world, understood as an actual and common home. Taking such perspective, the theory of Argentinian philosopher – Ernesto Laclau becomes an interesting proposition. The time of mono-dimensional – protestant and neoliberal – interpretation of values comes to the end. Now the time has come to accept the equality of different – having their roots in various cultures – value understanding. Possibility of local and particular interpretation of values – along with maintaining the rule of common good – gives the chance to update the education according to real, thus multidimensional humanistic ideal. Such a standpoint presents a way to cure/reform intercultural education, which nowadays is at an impasse. Mainly it uses stiff schemes and repeated patterns, so it has become imitative and conservative. In its contemporary formula intercultural education is not able to respond to present challenges of multicultural and global society. The need to implant into its structure the concept of sustainable development emerges as a must.
The article presents personal memories of Professor Aleksander Koj’s alumni. Professor Aleksander Koj was a world-class biochemist of significant scientific achievements, a renowned authority in the field of acute-phase response regulation and acute-phase proteins. He was an excellent academic, a true Master, admired and followed by many Polish biochemists. Thrice he served as the Rector of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. He navigated the University through a difficult time of political transformation in Poland, modernized the management system of the University and led to the commencement of the construction of the new University campus. He was the co-creator and the first Chairman of the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland. He will be remembered as a devoted community worker aiming at strengthening the bond between the Polish community abroad and our homeland, propagating knowledge, promoting the concept of European integration, democracy and tolerance, as well as the collaboration between scientists, artists and men and women of culture. He was wise, righteous, and noble. Many had the honor of calling him their friend, and a great many saw in him a moral authority.
The article discusses the issues of values and social responsibility of universities. On the one hand, the foundations of functioning of universities, which are created by research and education and the role of universities in formation, are recalled. On the other hand, it was reminded that the heart of universities, their DNA, are academic values, defined primarily in the Magna Charta Universitatum, but also in many other documents, such as the Code of Values of the Jagiellonian University. Hence, universities are increasingly often referred to not only as universities of knowledge, but also as universities of wisdom. Together, they are the basis for the social responsibility of universities. However, they alone are not enough for this social responsibility to materialise. Appropriate behaviour and actions are essential. Because knowledge alone is not everything. Such actions are always necessary, but especially when we find ourselves, as a country, humanity and a planet, in a crisis situation related to the climate disaster, which we are already partially experiencing. After the presentation of the most important current facts related to the climate and environmental crisis, the tasks to be undertaken urgently in this context by universities were presented, from broadly understood education, through convincing politicians to ambitious and quick actions, to intensive work on innovative solutions that can contribute to reducing threats brought by the climate and environmental crisis, pointing out, among others, the initiatives proposed by the newly created network of universities U7.