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Abstrakt

Professor Krystyna Chojnicka from the Department of History of Political and Legal Doctrines, Jagiellonian University, talks about respect for female lawyers, the true role of a Byzantine princess, and how a theatrical performance sparked her interest in Russian legal doctrine.
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We talk to Prof. Magda Konarska from the Centre of New Technologies at the University of Warsaw about the “spliceosome,” the ongoing need for basic research and the importance of diversity in science.
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Słowa kluczowe women in science

Abstrakt

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
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Słowa kluczowe women in science

Abstrakt

We talk to Prof. Małgorzata Kossowska from the Institute of Psychology at the Jagiellonian University about whether women are appreciated, the significance of openness and tolerance, and what makes a terrorist.
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Słowa kluczowe women in science

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We talked to Prof. Elżbieta Frąckowiak, Vice President of the Polish Academy of Sciences, about relative sizes of “fishes” and “ponds” and the height of glass ceilings in the research world.
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Słowa kluczowe women in science

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Prof. Maria Anna Ciemerych- -Litwinienko and Asst. Prof. Edyta Brzóska-Wójtowicz from the Faculty of Biology at the University of Warsaw discuss the position of women in science.
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Słowa kluczowe women in science

Abstrakt

The presence of women in science, methods of supporting them in pursuing careers in science, and the Polish Young Academy’s plans are discussed by Dr. Anna Ajduk of the University of Warsaw, who is chair of the Polish Young Academy, and its three deputy chairs – Assoc. Prof. Nicole Dołowy-Rybińska from the PAS Institute of Slavic Studies, Assoc. Prof. Monika Kędra from the PAS Institute of Oceanology, and Assoc. Prof. Monika Kwoka of the Silesian University of Technology.
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In the text is analyzed the issue of the parametric evaluation of scientific journals. The author makes thesis (and justifies it), that the nature and methodological bases of this process will determine the quality of effects of works on the scientific journals evaluation and it’s further status. Whereas this evaluation has far-reaching consequences for the development of the science.
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Abstrakt

Gaston Milhaud (1858–1918) był filozofem francuskim, który wychodząc od matematyki, odbył drogę do filozofii (zwłaszcza epistemologii) i historii nauki. Jego prace z zakresu historii nauki były poświęcone nauce greckiej i nauce nowożytnej. Milhaud podnosi w swych pracach, że podstawowe pojęcia i zasady nauki (jej rozmaitych dyscyplin) są efektem decyzji, które zarazem przekraczają tak doświadczenie, jak i logikę. Kładzie on nacisk na rolę swobodnej kreacji i aktywności umysłu. Autor poddaje dyskusji centralne problemy myśli Milhauda, w szczególności zaś kwestię relacji nauki do filozofii.
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Abstrakt

Prof. Mario Molina, a Nobel Prize winner, talks about his experience in making the harmful effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) known to scientists, the general public, manufacturers and politicians.
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Słowa kluczowe stereotypes women in science

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Sylwia Bedyńska, PhD, from the Institute of General Psychology at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, explains how negative stereotypes affect gifted women and their education choices.
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In 2014 the Jagiellonian University celebrated its 650th anniversary. The description of the university’s history on the jubilee website, however, makes no mention of the first female students – even though it was the first Polish university to welcome women.
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Abstrakt

Changes of university should not be a result of administrators’ and university managers’ decisions (as a top-down approach), but of initiatives caused by academic community. These engaged initiatives may take a different forms – associations, foundations, membership in academic committees, as well as different kinds of new social movements. An example of such a social movement are Obywatele Nauki (the Citizens of Science). Its members are young (usually post-docs), as well as more experienced scholars, who – despite the fact of achieving scientific and academic success – are working for the common good and the good of the university seen as an important social institution. Thus the Citizens of Science propose and encourage other scholars to seek constructive and parallel solutions, that, on the one hand, will respect the cultural, social, economic roots building the identity of the university, and, on the other hand, that will have will to use the vitality of young academic. There are three main possibilities of interpretation of the activity of the movement. First of all, these are the modern conceptions of social movements (Gorlach, Mooney 2008; Krzeminski 2013; Sztompka 2010; Żuk 2001; Touraine 2010, 2011, 2013), analyzing measures in the dimension of macro, meso and microstructure. Another important interpretation path is a reference to the history of Social Solidarity Movement (Touraine 2010, 2011, 2013; Ost 2007; Staniszkis 2010; Koczanowicz 2009). The third possibility of interpretive is theory of performative democracy (Matynia 2008; Austin 1993; Searl 1980, 1987), which is a particular dimension of public life, what creates an alternative to the undemocratic, unjust practices of power.
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The article discusses the problem of counteracting academic promotion won on the basis of apparent achievements. Attention was drawn to the growing problem of so-called “Slovak habilitation and degrees”, to the pedagogical promotion of persons from outside of pedagogy that is not justified by achievements of good quality, but is based on popular science publications, to the phenomenon of softening and ignoring negative reviews and the reviewers’ tendency to mitigate the final conclusions of their opinions. Some ways to prevent promotional pathology are also recommended as worth using in academic practices.
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W artykule dokonuje się analizy porównawczej różnych klasyfi kacji paradygmatów nauki i nauk o zarządzaniu w aspekcie ich pragmatyczności i odpowiedniości odnośnie do badań organizacji oraz uzasadnia tezę o wysokiej użyteczności modelu badawczego zaproponowanego przez Kenetha D. Stranga. Model Stranga, oparty na koncepcji ideologii badawczych, pozwala na pokonanie teoretycznej niewspółmierności i współpracę przedstawicieli różnych paradygmatów. Artykuł zawiera ponadto refl eksje odnośnie do paradygmatu jako kluczowego czynnika wpływającego zarówno na rozwój nauk o zarządzaniu, jak i na działania praktyczne w organizacjach. Wybór określonego paradygmatu, tj. ideologii badawczej, ma decydujący wpływ na wyniki badań, a także uogólnienia praktyki. Paradygmat określa strategię badawczą, dobór metod badawczych i reguł wnioskowania. Ma on też wpływ na proces edukacji, a co za tym idzie ma swój udział w kształtowaniu światopoglądu naukowców, przedsiębiorców i menedżerów.
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Abstrakt

Adopting and developing a knowledge-based economy as the current stage of global economic development is an important stimulus to successful innovation. The transition to a knowledge-based economy and achieving economic convergence, especially in the case of emerging economies, requires the appreciation of science and technology coexistence on the one hand, and the development of innovation on the other, as well as the raising of human resource competences and skills for further development. Latin American countries, in search of an effective development strategy after moving away from the Washington Consensus, which set economic priorities through the last decade of the twentieth century, become increasingly aware of the importance of the development of STI policies. They try to identify the most important institutions and the capacities and resources needed to support economic development. Such policy generally includes at least three objectives: to create research and development opportunities in public research institutes and universities; to stimulate the demand of companies for scientific and technological knowledge by establishing close relationships between universities, business and government, and supporting and developing national innovation systems in each country. In this article the author analyzes the policies introduced and attempts to assess their effectiveness.
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The consciousness of a crisis of university inclines towards its reformation. In the thinking about its revival it is necessary to take into account the archetypical idea behind university, traditions to date, contemporary conditions and visions of the future. It is also getting indispensable to take into consideration such values that ought to steer the development of university in the framework of global civilization. The tasks of university are as follows: 1) to conduct research in striving for truth in the conditions of autonomy and freedom, as well as responsibility for the present day and the future of man; 2) to educate students, which introduces them in the world of science and life, as well as teaches them to be responsible; 3) to practice public science which is present in debates undertaking to solve vital social problems. The academic community and its elites should defend the conception of university against the dictate of their political and economic counterparts who attempt to impose the idea of an entrepreneurial university which produces a utilitarian knowledge and “human principles”.
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Przedmiotem analizy jest próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, w jaki sposób Karol Marks należy do obszarów filozofii i historii filozofii, i czy wpisywanie go w te dziedziny w obecnie przyjęty sposób jest uprawnione? Analizując myśl Marksa należy pamiętać, że nie uważał się on za filozofa, ale za badacza, który przekracza horyzont filozofii, pracując na gruncie nauki oraz ideologii organizującej walki polityczne swojego czasu. Oczywiście to, co dany myśliciel sądzi o sobie i mówi na swój temat, nie może być ostatecznym kryterium interpretacji jego dorobku. Wydobywanie z twórczości Marksa bogatej problematyki filozoficznej budzi jednak wątpliwości, czy przypadkiem nie zacieramy istoty tej twórczości, czyniąc z Marksa kogoś, kim nie był? Wątpliwości te narastają, gdy bierzemy pod uwagę Główne nurty marksizmu Leszka Kołakowskiego – opracowanie, które czyni z tezy, iż „Karol Marks był filozofem niemieckim” punkt wyjścia dla analizy i krytyki jego myśli. Problem polega na tym, że sam Kołakowski w swojej postmarksistowskiej twórczości deprecjonuje naukę i filozofię, a za podstawę dynamiki myśli uznaje mit. Rodzi to pytanie, czy Kołakowski w swojej prezentacji Marksa przedstawia jego filozofię, czy raczej pewien mit Marksa jako oderwanego od rzeczywistości filozofa, uszczęśliwiającego ludzkość wbrew jej woli i naturze?
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The contemporary science has become more and more parameterized and focused on points. In this situation it is more and more difficult to maintain “the purity” of the idea of science and its main goal – discovering the world, in selfless duty. That’s the reason why I have presented the example of a scientist, who was uncompromisingly, and with a real passion, devoted to science. I have choosen Maria Skłodowska-Curie: we celebrate the 150th anniversary of her birth in 2017.
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Crossing borders: between literature and science – Italian culture of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has offered significant examples of renewal through crossing boundaries between different disciplines. Several writers (Levi, Calvino, Gadda, Sinisgalli, Del Giudice, Giordano, Arpaia, Odifreddi) have overcome the dichotomy between the two cultures that was denounced by Charles Snow in 1959. Sixty years after the famous essay by Snow, the paper will show several examples of connections between literature and science, by using the concept of the “four frontier customs”: “the transit”, “the trespass”, “the alliance”, and “the conflict”.
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Scientists around the world agree that nowadays, science is facing severe challenges like poor peer-review system, replicability crisis, or locked science behind paywalls. The National Science Center addresses at least some of them by introducing procedures that promote integrity, ethics, social responsibility, transparency, and openness in science.
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The historian in the contemporary Poland has to fulfil not only the tasks on his workplace, commonly at a state university or in a research institute but he has also commitments which result from the traditional ethos of a man of science. In the public sphere he has to deal with historical politics created by the state and the political forces immediately, which cannot actually be influenced by the scientific circles in a relevant way. The political forces await from the historian the disclosure of such a “truth” which would interpret the existing reality as the possible space for creation of that what ought to be. The associational scientific movement as a traditionally autonomous body concerned with population of knowledge has in this situation the chance and the not utterly fulfilled task of defending of the historical truth, conditioned and determined with the contemporary theory of knowledge.
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A central element in the theory of clustering is the idea that physical clustering of businesses within specialized sectors is a source for regional economic growth. The spatial proximity of companies and institutions within related industries create a specific setting in which learning, knowledge sharing and mutual competition are encouraged. Additionally, active participation within the innovation eco-system of a Science & Technology Park provides actors access to knowledge, facilities and complementary contacts and network structures. Collective ideation helps an organization to improve the positioning within the technological field and economic market, especially within an innovation ecosystem because actors are dependent on each other’s behaviour to be successful in innovation. This research focuses on the question how to design the collective ideation process in particular to foster interactions within the context of a science & technology parks? This research is based on semi-structured interviews, conducted at all development stages (idea, startup, grow and mature) of Dutch science & technology parks with stakeholders from different perspectives, based on the triple-helix structure (government, industry, research). The study describes how multiple stakeholders benefit from collective ideation, what mechanisms and tools are used in practice and also describes prerequisites and limitations of collective ideation.
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Public space in geographical and social aspects. Space as a scientific and social term has many interpretations. Work organizes mutual relations between various kinds of spaces. The paper focuses on the contemporary determinants of shaping a public space in cities regarding the popularization of information and communication technologies. Attention was also paid to the metric feature of social spaces because it is usually neglected while constructing such spaces.
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