It was expected that there would be a relationship between plant density and arrangement within soybean plantations and ground beetles due to changes of abiotic habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determinate the effect of different plant arrangements of soybean plants on the abundance and species diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae). The studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at the Experimental Research Station, Wrocław, Poland. The occurrence of beetles was examined on soybeans, growing in four different treatments: row spacing of 15 cm or 30 cm, and seeding density of 50 or 90 seeds per m2. The experiment was conducted in a split-plot design in four replicates. Ground beetles were collected with 16 pitfall traps, with one trap in the middle part of each plot. The obtained results show that the general number of ground beetles was similar between the treatments. Some minor effects were found in species number, which was higher in the lower row spacing treatment. Only less abundant species were significantly affected. The most abundant species in all years and treatments were Pseudoophonus rufipes, Harpalus affinis, Calathus fuscipes and Pterostichus melanarius. The abundance of the above-listed common ground beetle species did not differ significantly between treatments.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of soybean lecithin as a substitute for egg yolk in milk and tris based extenders in ram semen cryopreservation. Twenty ejaculates were col- lected from four healthy, mature Wrzosówka rams (2-3 years of age). Each ejaculate was divided into four equal aliquots and diluted with four different extenders: 1) milk extender containing 5% egg yolk, 2) milk extender containing 1.5% soybean lecithin, 3) tris extender containing 20% egg yolk, 4) tris extender containing 1.5% soybean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded into 0.25 ml French straws, cooled and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Total motility, curvilinear velocity, plasma membrane integrity and fertilizing ability of sperm were assessed after thawing. Total mo- tility was lower (p<0.05) in tris-soybean lecithin extender when compared to other extenders. Curvilinear velocity was higher (p<0.05) for spermatozoa cryopreserved in milk-soybean lecithin extender compared to other extenders tested. For the percentage of live sperm no significant difference was observed between extenders. The lambing rate were higher (not statistically signifi- cant) in ewes inseminated with semen doses frozen in milk-soybean lecithin extender (42.9%) than in the tris-egg yolk extender (16.7%). In conclusion, replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin was effective in milk but not in tris extender.
Vegetable oils belong to a large group of substances consumed on a daily basis. World vegetable oil production is soaring, reducing the popularity of animal fats. Heavy metals pose a threat to human health. It is estimated that about 80% of the daily dose of heavy metals enters the human body through the consumption of food. Hence, it is necessary to monitor their concentrations in food products. Besides, the presence of heavy metals is thought to have possible negative influence on the quality of oils, especially on their taste and smell. Heavy metals may also accelerate the process of the rancidifiction of oils. Rapeseeds, soybean seeds and linseeds were selected for the analysis because they are one of the most popular oilseeds and at the same time they differ in terms of growing conditions. The analyses of different fractions and the ready-made product were also performed. The aim of the study was to determine the variation in concentrations of heavy metals, iron and manganese in different fractions during production. The significant concentrations of iron, manganese and zinc were observed in oilseeds. It was also shown that during different stages of oil refining the concentrations of metals decrease. The concentrations of metals are compared with those reported in literature.
The production of domestic protein for feed in Poland is insufficient. The import of feed raw materials, especially soybean, which is genetically modified (GM) is necessity. In 2016, Poland imported about 2 million tonnes of GM soybean. In Poland was introduced a ban for using and production of GM feed (Law – animal feed from 2006). This ban has already been suspended few times, mainly due to the fact, that the complete replacement of imported GM soybean meal with other components was impossible. The Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development appointed “Team for alternative sources of protein”, responsible for finding solutions that will impact on reducing imports and will increase the share of domestic sources of protein in animal feed. To achieve this aim research are needed to indicate plants and their possibilities for using. The aim of the article is to analyse selected feed components such as: soybean and rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and oilcakes. This analysis concerns the area of cultivation of soybean, rapeseed and sunflower, purchase costs of meals and oilcakes, properties of these components and foreign trade in Poland.
The “second generation” of glyphosate-tolerant soybean (GT2 soybean) was developed through a different technique of insertion of the glyphosate-insensitive EPSPs gene, in comparison with “first generation” of glyphosate-tolerant soybean. However, there is not enough information available about glyphosate selectivity in GT2 soybean and the effects on the quality of seeds produced. The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerance to glyphosate and seed quality of soybean cultivar NS 6700 IPRO (GT2) with cp4-EPSPs and cry1Ac genes, after application at post-emergence (V4). The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates and seven treatments, or rates of glyphosate (0; 720; 1,440; 2,160; 2,880; 3,600; 4,320 g of acid equivalent − a.e. · ha−1). Assessments were performed for crop injury, SPAD index and variables related to agronomic performance and seed quality. A complementary trial with the same cultivar and treatments in a greenhouse was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. Data analysis indicated no significant effect of glyphosate on V4 on agronomic performance and physiological quality of seeds, for two growing seasons. The soybean cultivar NS 6700 IPRO (GT2), with cp4-EPSPs and cry1Ac genes, was tolerant to glyphosate up to the maximum rate applied (4,320 g a.e. · ha−1) at post-emergence (V4). The quality of soybean seeds was not affected by glyphosate up to the maximum rate applied (4,320 g a.e. · ha−1) at post-emergence (V4).
Three transgenic soybean lines expressing the Cry1Ia5 gene were developed using the Agrobacterium transformation system. The integration of the Cry1Ia5 gene in the genome of the transgenic plants was approved using specific primers for PCR and real time PCR analysis, respectively. The insecticidal activity of three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) against 2nd larval instars Spodoptera littoralis was tested. The data indicate that L2 exhibited the highest mortality percentage 9 days post feeding (60%) followed by L3 (40%) then L1 (20%) while the control showed 0% mortality. The larvae fed transgenic material appeared smaller in size than compared to the control larvae. The reduction in insect size and weight was due to the accumulation of higher phenoloxidase activity in insect tissues. The higher mortality observed in L2 was due to a significant decrease in the acetylcholine esterase activity that leads to accumulation of acetylcholin at higher levels which causes paralysis and death. The developed transgenic line 2 could be used to construct an insect resistant soybean cultivar.