The article refers to the urban sprawl in Poland. Its objectives are: (1) analysis of relations between negative eff ects, (2) presentation negative effects on transport and energy consumption and on spatial order, (3) analysis of ways of counteracting negative processes including conditions (especially restrictions) on the use of this ways and their effectiveness. The methods used were: observation, literature analysis and logical analysis. Driving forces are heading towards further suburbanization, stopping of which is considered impossible. Orientation of the processes more closely to spatial order is very difficult. There are proper and legal solutions for this, but there are barriers to their use, such as: the lack of awareness and motivation of local authorities and the political conditions that discourage more restrictive regulation.
Shaping a space shouldn’t be an endless expansion of the built environemnt. New districts and new cities should be more than collections of houses, quickly produced and placed without any overarching concept. They should present streets, squares, axes, directions, as features of the area's composition. An ordered space is a sign of true modernity.
Aesthetic Costs of Spatial Chaos. The most characteristic process of settlement’s development in Poland after 1989, is chaotic dispersion of the buildings, usually around cities, but also along the routes, tourist sites and agricultural areas. The result of this pressure is the fragmentation and the increasing isolation of the landscape ecological systems. These processes have also consequences in the degradation of aesthetic values of the landscape. This report shows the consequences of these processes and condemns the most important tasks that should be taken to repair the quality of the landscape. It is estimated that over 60% of the Polish population lives in the conflict countryside, undergoing pressure of spatial disorder, with reduced or degraded of compositional and aesthetic values. The disintegration of the landscape style and the place identity has also appeared in this areas. In the cities grows the visual aggression of advertising billboards. These phenomena are increasingly negatively assessed by the society. Improvement of spatial order and landscape aesthetics requires fundamental changes in the system of spatial planning, transfer of modern knowledge about the landscape systems to local governments and spatial planning staff, as well as a long-term, consistent work of the society.It is necessary to establish a new way of thinking and learning about the landscape systems. The development and dissemination of methods and techniques of GIS, opens up a new possibilities for diagnosing the physiognomy of the landscape. A methods of assessing the physiognomic structure of landscape as well as methods of design the composition of landscape interiors and scenic panoramas are developed. Since 2015, the landscape audit procedure is implemented. The National Landscape Policy, as well as a common landscape education should be developed, conducted in parallel to the already well-developed environmental policy and education.
This article analyzes the social content of spatial order concept and manifestations of social participation in shaping this order using two examples: shaping the safety of public spaces and revitalizing cities. The author concludes with proposals to increase public participation in the creation of spatial order.
Designed by the architect Louis I. Kahn, the Phillips Exeter Academy Library is renowned mostly for the quality of its inner spaces. Particularly, the image of the building's central void with its large circular openings giving an insight onto the bookshelves has almost become an archetype of the library. Following the building's design process, however, we will learn how many tangible factors participated in the actual shaping of its architecture. The uniqueness of this project relies not only on embodying the idea of the library as institution, but also on the compromises the architect took as well as on the building's adjustment to its environmental setting.