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Number of results: 8
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Abstract

In the 19th and in the first half of the 20th century numerous parks were built all over Europe, which, though different in many aspects, still show certain similarities in space structure and composition. The question is, whether late modern public parks, built in the second half on the 20th century follow the classical design and composition „rules”? How did the extremely functionalist design approach of the era after WW2 influence park design? The answer is the result of a detailed analysis on space structure and composition principles of the parks built in these times. In this research I analyzed according to specific criteria the Jubileum Park in Budapest, one of the most prominent work of the late modern period in Hungary. The 12 ha Jubileum Park (built in 1965) is located in the heart of Budapest, on the top of Gellért Hill, next to river Danube. Laying high above the city on an exposed hillside, the park offers a broad view of the whole city. The structure of the park is basically determined by the extreme topography, and one of the great value of the park is the natural looking grading, which determines the space structure and fits to the natural terrain very nicely, and the walkway system, which fits to the contour lines and explores the whole site. Fitting to the windy and exposed hilltop position, in space division the terrain in the most appealing, the plantation is only secondary. From formal point an interesting feature is the dominance of two dimensional elements with characteristic shape, like flowerbeds or ornamental pools and the curves of the walkway system. Though the main function of the park is to underline the fantastic visual potential with providing viewpoints, there are some playgrounds as well. For the visitor of today the specialty of the park celebrating the 50th anniversary this year, is, that – disregarding some minor changes – there were no alterations since it exists. As a first step I analyzed the space structure of the park, putting an extra emphasis on the existence or lack of any axis, on the accentuation of the park entrances, on the space organization inside the park and on the existence/lack of hierarchy. Important aspect of analysis was the connection of the park to connecting urban fabric and green surfaces nearby. The next step was to compare the results with other parks built in former times, but having similar natural setting. The goal of the research is to determine, how much the spatial composition of Jubileum Park is different from the spatial composition of classical parks. The results might help to realize, what kind of spatial composition and space structure is typical of late modern parks. It would be important to preserve these space structural specialties of the Jubileum Park during a more and more urgent renovation.
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Abstract

Port cities are having diff erent spatial structure than those located inlands. As a result of their seaside location, they face specifi c administrative and functional problems on a daily basis. In the economic and settlement structure of the country, they usually play the role of a “gate” through which streams of cargo are distributed further over the whole hinterland. It is the transport and logistics function of port cities, as well as the water bodies located in their area, that determine their spatial character to the greatest extent. The confi guration of the two above- mentioned factors, together with other development conditions, determines the model of spatial changes taking place in port cities. Additionally, evolving shipping technologies aff ect the contemporary development of the ports’ and port cities’ spatial structure.
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Abstract

The analysis of the fractal dimension becomes one of the new approach features in spatial research. This approach bases on the perception of space as a living structure, an organism which in its complexity and heterogeneity is a multi-scale creation although holistically perceived. The aim of the authors was to determine the nationwide fractal dimensions for the distinguished construction categories and designation of general regularities in these layout.
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to look at the quantitative dimension of public space resources in Polish cities, a comparative analysis of these resources, determining the share of public space in the urban spatial structure and referring this structure to European cities. The concept of ‘public space resources’ has been introduced, and is defined as those areas in the city that fulfill or can fulfill the functions of public space. This concept, and then the proposal of its operationalization, aimed to draw attention to the spatial and physical aspects of public space, which would allow to broaden and supplement social approaches in the study of public space. The quantitative approach to public space proposed in the paper also enabled a comparative research to assess the role of public space in the structure of Polish cities in a more objective manner and refer it to European cities.
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Abstract

Unfavorable spatial structure of arable land located in Małopolska is a major obstacle in conducting agricultural activity. Arable lands located in the southern part of Małopolska are fragmented, have small area, and irregular shapes. Agricultural activity on land with an unfavorable spatial structure is associated with an increase in production costs, which directly results in lower income of farms. One of the methods of improving spatial conditions is to implement land consolidation works. They allow to organize the spatial structure, increase the area of agriculturally used parcels, while reducing their number. The article presents a new approach in determining the parameters of land fragmentation. GIS tools were used to identify areas with unfavorable spatial parameters. The methodology which allows for the processing, filtration of source data, determination and visualization of land fragmentation parameters is discussed. As part of the research, the Binning method was used, which allows to visualize the phenomenon and simultaneously reduce the data used. In the work, a detailed assessment of land fragmentation parameters was made, which can be used in agricultural land management works. Analyzes have shown that the southern areas of the Nowy Targ County are characterized by intensive fragmentation of arable land. There are also unfavorable parameters related to the elongation and shape of parcels in the discussed areas.
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Abstract

Long term changes (46 years) in the a bundance of pygoscelid penguins breeding populations and nests distribution in the Lions Rump (King George Island) colony were investigated in three time intervals, according to previously published two censuses and one original study conducted in 2010. At that time a detailed colony map based on the GIS system was made. Results of this study showed different trends for each investigated species. In the last three decades Adélie penguin breeding populations showed strong declining tendencies (69.61%). In contrast, the population of gentoo penguins represents the reverse trend, increasing 171.85% over the same period. Observed changes in both penguin population sizes are reflected in the different spatial and geographic distribution of their nests. The population changes observed at the Lions Rump colony are consistent with the relevant pygoscelid penguin tendencies in the western Antarctic Peninsula region. Breeding penguin population dynamics at Lions Rump area with a minimal disturbance by human activity may well illustrate a natural response of those birds to environmental changes in the Antarctic.
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Abstract

Designed by the architect Louis I. Kahn, the Phillips Exeter Academy Library is renowned mostly for the quality of its inner spaces. Particularly, the image of the building's central void with its large circular openings giving an insight onto the bookshelves has almost become an archetype of the library. Following the building's design process, however, we will learn how many tangible factors participated in the actual shaping of its architecture. The uniqueness of this project relies not only on embodying the idea of the library as institution, but also on the compromises the architect took as well as on the building's adjustment to its environmental setting.
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Abstract

Social and Economic Costs of Spatial Disorder in Agriculture. The main objective of the study was the identification of the phenomena of chaos in the structure and spatial organization of agriculture, that is the agrarian fragmentation of farms, exclusion of land from agricultural production in suburban zones and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. These processes cause a major increase in economic and social costs, which results in the loss of resources and spatial disorder in agriculture. An attempt was made to estimate the costs of these processes in economic, social and environmental terms. The economic dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is manifested by negative results in the production and consumption sphere related most often to high labour costs, and consequently to low incomes. The social dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is demonstrated by the effects of de-agrarization processes and deformation of social structures. De-agrarization means the processes of agricultural area reduction, extensification and fallowing as well as an increasingly limited significance of agriculture as a workplace and a reduction in the source of income by rural residents. A conducted analysis of spatial disorder in agriculture resulting from the lack of appropriate regulation and taxation systems as well as historical factors allowed determining direct and indirect results influencing the structure and spatial organization of agriculture. Direct results include: a chessboard pattern of agricultural land, marginalization of the agricultural function in rural areas which mostly applies to suburban zones, unregulated ownership of farmland, its unjustified designation for other purposes, a decrease in biodiversity in agriculture and fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. Indirect results include: an increase in the costs of agricultural production, expensive agricultural-installation plans, loss of direct payments, easement appurtenant, the emergence of human-environment conflicts and major transformations of the agricultural landscape in a suburban zone.
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