The aim of the presented work is to prove that construction of large sports facilities in the urban space, can generate positive changes and revitalization of degraded areas. On the basis of comparative analysis of cases in which such activities took place, it can be concluded that locating these facilities in heavily degraded urban areas is one of the most eff ective methods of large-scale revitalization. This is mainly visible in post-industrial areas, which are usually well linked to canals, rivers and other waterways or reservoirs. The vast spaces around sports facilities create favorable conditions for additional recreational functions, such as parks and green areas, which in connection with water become a very attractive place for the residents of the city. Increasing interest in the area leads to new investments such as housing estates and gradual development of a multi-functional urban structure. One of the most important factors leading to this type of transformation is the modernization of the communication infrastructure which enables connection between revitalized areas and the rest of the city. A well-planned program of newly emerging sports facilities is also an extremely important factor. As research shows, large multifunctional sports and entertainment facilities, can function as a new kind of public space in the city. This leads not only to the establishment of completely new social relations, but also to the creation of jobs and the general improvement of the broadly understood image of the district.
Learned helplessness is often studied as a consequence of repetitive failure in a performance domain and is usually associated with the experience of uncontrollability over future outcomes. The premise of this review article is first to establish initial support towards the notion of learned helplessness seen in the context of sports performance. Furthermore, the role of performance anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism will be introduced to strengthen the idea that thinking traits impact motor performance especially when these traits moderate the effects of consecutive failure experience. Finally the paper will focus on a typical profile of an athlete who would be susceptible to choking under pressure as an outcome of perceived uncontrollability and performance anxiety. Burnout and potential interventions will be discussed later.
This paper presents results of the study devoted to analysis of impact of upper extremities' momentum on the jump length and analysis of selected kinematic data changes during the standing long jump. Four young sportsmen participated in the initial study. They have performed standing long jump in two measuring conditions: with and without arms swinging. Motion was captured using a 3D opto-electronic camera system SMART (BTS) and selected kinematic data were evaluated using software packages and data processing: trajectory of body centre of gravity (COG), velocity of COG, maximal vertical distance of COG, take-off angle together with momentum of upper extremities were analyzed. The data were statistically evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Statistical significance of the kinematic data and jump length were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc test (p<0.05) in Statistics toolbox of Matlab program. Statistically significant differences were assessed within intraindividual and intraclass comparison of data.
This article deals with the problem of determining the resistance of end-plate connections. A nonlinear FEM model of the joint was constructed in order to predict its carrying capacity. A standard code procedure was done as well. The analyses have been done to assess atypical end-plate joints designed and constructed as a part of roof structures.