The aim of this study is to find the cost design of RC tension with varying conditions using the Artificial Neural Network. Design constraints were used to cover all reliable design parameters, such as limiting cross sectional dimensions and; their reinforcement ratio and even the beahviour of optimally designed sections. The design of the RC tension members were made using Indian and European standard specifications which were discussed. The designed tension members according to both codes satisfy the strength and serviceability criteria. While no literature is available on the optimal design of RC tension members, the cross-sectional dimensions of the tension membersfor different grades of concrete and steel, and area of formwork are considered as the variables in the present optimum design model. A design example is explained and the results are presented. It is concluded that the proposed optimum design model yields rational, reliable, and practical designs.
The main aim of this paper is to propose a terminological approach to the standardization of onomastic terminology. Attention is paid to the primary importance of conceptual systems and to the onomasiological approach typical of terminological work. Terminology is presented as a discipline devoted primarily to the study of concepts. Then the main concepts of terminology are discussed and the relations between a conceptual system and a terminological system are explained. An outline of the issue of conceptual systems of onomastics and of their internal structure is made. Then two important metatheoretical concepts are introduced and defined: 1) the concept of theoretical legitimacy of concepts and 2) the concept of economy of conceptual systems. In the final part of the article, several suggestions concerning the standardization of onomastic terminology are made: 1) terms referring to concepts belonging to separate conceptual series are not to be used interchangeably; 2) terms based on different roots (in the English onomastic terminology: -onym, -onymy, -onomastics, in the Polish terminology: -onim, -onimia, -onomastyka) are to be reserved respectively for the concept of a single (type of) proper name, for the concept of a set of proper names and for the concept of a specific onomastic discipline; 3) concepts used or newly introduced in a text are to be defined clearly in onomastic works, 4) onomasticians aiming for standardization of onomastic terminology should start their work by (re)constructing conceptual system(s) of onomastics and only then assign terms to concepts; 5) one completely unitary conceptual (and terminological) system of onomastics cannot be achieved due to the theoretical pluralism of the discipline; 6) the first goal of any conceptual and terminological standardization of onomastics is to define its range: should the standardization cover the concepts of philological or general onomastics? should it cover only empirical (descriptive) concepts or highly abstract theoretical concepts as well?
This research deals with problems of low standardization of words in the Gamo textbooks, an Afroasiatic Omotic language of Ethiopia. Problems of designating one concept in two or more words, using different linguistic forms for the same grammatical function and degeminating and shortening long consonant and vowel segments were observed. These problems reduce the quality of the textbooks and mother tongue education and put pedagogical and cognitive burden on students.
The possibility or even necessity of revising definitions of some of the base units of the present SI has been discussed over the past 15 years. The last General Conference of Weights and Measures (2007) recommended to redefine the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole using fixed values of the fundamental constants by the time of the next General Conference in 2011. This paper is a review of proposals of new definitions of units of mentioned quantities and arguments voting for particular variants of definitions. Most relevant papers for this review have been published by Metrologia, the international journal appointed at the BIPM, and many other useful pieces of information are available on www pages of the BIPM. The author notes that not only new definitions have been discussed but as well as the set of the base units of the SI. It means a replacement of the ampere by the volt or the kelvin by the joule. Decisions concerning new definitions are not made and the discussions are still open.
Latest developments in international standardization of whole-body and hand-arm vibration are pre- sented. In addition, two German projects are presented that might have impact on international work programs in the next years.
The text comprises the evaluation of relationship between the qualitative planning tools and the Irish housing policy in the pre-crisis period, during the crisis (2009-2013) and the recovery. The tools that affect housing are understood as spatial planning, including governmental regulations on densification of the development and the housing quality as well as the special tools such as the urban design. Those regulatory tools were deployed with aims to safeguard the sustainable and socially viable housing structures. The Irish case illustrates the considerable innovation in introducing new housing standards and challenges with their efficiency. This can be attributed to the lack of integration with other elements that shaped the market – financing and actions of the private market, low efficiency of planning or the lack of the scale effect for the model developments. Despite their drawbacks these tools are continuously being used, as their foundational principles are still valid.
Wind constitutes one of the major environmental factors affecting the design and performance of built environment. Each country has its unique climatic wind conditions, and the way in which these are considered and implemented in the structural design, is important. An implementation or adoption of any new engineering design stipulations introduces a formidable challenge to the developers of the standards and the design profession. This has been experienced in some of the countries (e.g. the UK, Australia and the USA), where processes of modernising the outdated codifi cation took place in the past. Although both Poland and South Africa are currently at the early implementation stage of the new wind loading design stipulations, there is a major difference between the circumstances of the two countries. Poland, as an EU member state, has a compulsory obligation to adopt the new uniform standarisation requirements, within a stipulated time-frame. The South African code developers, after a thorough investigation process which will be highlighted in the paper, decided voluntarily to adopt the Eurocode as the primary model document.
The paper investigates the air quality in the urban area of Warsaw, Poland. Calculations are carried out using the emissions and meteorological data from the year 2012. The modeling tool is the regional CALMET/CALPUFF system, which is used to link the emission sources with the distributions of the annual mean concentrations. Several types of polluting species that characterize the urban atmospheric environment, like PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, Pb, B(a)P, are included in the analysis. The goal of the analysis is to identify the most polluted districts and polluting compounds there, to check where the concentration limits of particular pollutants are exceeded. Then, emission sources (or emission categories) which are mainly responsible for violation of air quality standards and increase the adverse health effects, are identified. The modeling results show how the major emission sources – the energy sector, industry, traffic and the municipal sector – relate to the concentrations calculated in receptor points, including the contribution of the transboundary inflow. The results allow to identify districts where the concentration limits are exceeded and action plans are needed. A quantitative source apportionment shows the emission sources which are mainly responsible for the violation of air quality standards. It is shown that the road transport and the municipal sector are the emission classes which substantially affect air quality in Warsaw. Also transboundary inflow contributes highly to concentrations of some pollutants. The results presented can be of use in analyzing emission reduction policies for the city, as a part of an integrated modeling system.
For a very long period of time, Polish waste management was based mainly on landfilling at landfills, which had a negative impact on the surrounding environment. The EU requirements for the Member States have led to a revolution in Polish legislation on waste management and local governments have become responsible for creating local waste management systems that will affect the achievement of EU targets. One of the solutions undertaken by several municipalities is the construction and operation of a municipal waste thermal treatment installation, which not only reduced the amount of waste deposited, but also supported the local power industry by generating electricity and heat. The emission standards for installations producing energy from waste, as in the case of conventional power plants and combined heat and power plants, are very strict, therefore, the continuous monitoring of emitted pollutants is carried out, and waste gas treatment systems are developed based on the best available techniques (BAT). The article presents emission standards applicable to waste incineration plants, including duties in the field of the environment, as well as issues related to the installation as a source of energy. In addition, the currently functioning waste incineration plants in Poland have been briefly characterized, and development plans in this area in the country have been described.
In the text, a polemic is undertaken against the model of the child expected in Polish institutions of early childhood education, and which appropriates the rationalities producing social practices. The source of this model is in the logic of standardization whose cognitive and effects on identity are criticized by the author. Identifying the sources of validation of the practices normalizing some children and stigmatizing others, who do not meet the requirements of the cognitively rigid and morally trivialized standards, the text points to developmental psychology as a discipline which potentially triggers this form of oppression. In conclusion, the author describes briefly a number of examples of educational solutions in which an attempt has been made to move beyond the discourse of standardized quality in child education.
Electric energy meters are designed to account energy under sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal conditions, because both, old and new standards for energy meters require testing their accuracy under different conditions. The latest EN 50470 standard increases the range of meter testing under nonsinusoidal conditions, introducing new shapes of test signals such as the phase fired waveform or the burst fired waveform. This paper discusses calibration problems of electronic revenue energy meters for direct connection and for connection through current transformers, and it proposes a new calibration procedure which reproduces normal operating conditions better: three-phase configurations of measurement systems, load range during meter testing or shapes of test signals. Recently, modern Electrical Power Standards, also known as Power Calibrators, enable automatic testing of various types of electrical devices, including electricity meters in their normal operating conditions. This article presents examples of single and multi position fully automatic test systems, which employ Power/Energy Calibrator from Poland as the precision source with programmed waveforms of three phase voltages up to 560 V and currents up to 120 A conforming to EN 50470, or with random waveforms generated by PC software random wave generator. Measurement uncertainty of the energy meters under different nonsinusoidal conditions using a test system with reference to accuracy of the power calibrator or to the reference meter, are discussed. Comparative analysis of test results for different shapes of voltage and current signals is presented in the conclusions of this paper.
A method for determining time-optimum medium temperature changes is presented. The heating of the pressure elements will be conducted so that the circumferential stress caused by pressure and fluid temperature variations at the edge of the opening at the point of stress concentration, do not exceed the allowable value. In contrast to present standards, two points at the edge of the opening are taken into consideration. The first point, P1, is located at the cross section and the second, P2, at the longitudinal section of the vessel. It will be shown that the optimum temperature courses should be determined with respect to the total circumferential stress at the point P2, and not, as in the existing standards due to the stress at the point P1. Optimum fluid temperature changes are assumed in the form of simple time functions. For practical reasons the optimum temperature in the ramp form is preferred. It is possible to increase the fluid temperature stepwise at the beginning of the heating process and then increase the fluid temperature with the constant rate. Allowing stepwise fluid temperature increase at the beginning of heating ensures that the heating time of a thick-walled component is shorter than heating time resulting from the calculations according to EN 12952-3 European Standard.
The purpose of the article is a critical presentation of Luther’s interpretation of Mt 5-7, with a special emphasis on its hermeneutical assumptions and anthropological consequences. At first the author presents the literary sources that contain Luther’s statements on Mt 5-7, i.e. his eminent hebdomadal speeches (Wochenpredigten) and some theological writings as well. Subsequently he discusses hermeneutical keys offered by M. Luther himself: the polemic against “double standard approach” (precepts and counsels) developed by the time of the Middle Ages and the polemic against the principles presented by the Anabaptist and other protestant idealists. However, the most significant factor of this interpretation was Luther’s teaching on two kingdoms (Zwei-Reichen-Lehre). The difference between the secular and spiritual kingdom is essential for Luther’s interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount (cf. WA 32, 299-301). The reformer claims that the message of the sermon is irrelevant for the Christian person in the world and it should be applied only to the Christian life in the Kingdom of God. M. Luther emphasizes also salvation by faith alone, therefore Matt. 5-7 has no soteriological value; it contains the ethical teaching of Jesus Christ. According to Luther the commandments of the Sermon on the Mount denote an impossible demand, therefore they are only a “mirror” of the Christian life. In the fourth step the author presents primary reactions of the Churches on Luther’s interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount. Luther’s interpretation of Mt 5-7 has its significant place in the history of exegesis and nowadays it remains still the standard evangelical standpoint.
The paper points out the role of terms in academic activity, particularly in onomastics. A survey of onomastic terms present in Polish dictionaries of linguistic terminology and onomastic encyclopaedias has been made. The need has been stressed to follow the rules of terminography in every dictionary of terms. Some normative terms, such as official name, dialectal name, minority name, have been suggested to be included as additional entries in glossaries of onomastic terms.
In the text the author makes a critical assessment of legal solutions regulating the education of teachers in Poland. In the realms of argument, he refers to his own experiences as a member of the Polish Accreditation Committee. The presentation of those experiences reveals areas of omissions, irregularities, and even pathologies in the process of conferring teaching qualifications on graduates of schools of higher education. The author derives the sources of the status quo from imperfections or contradictions in the documents regulating the same areas of education, as well as from the struggle of schools of higher education to survive in the market, leading to a dramatic reduction in the quality of education. The text ends in demands for necessary modifications of the standards of teacher education and changes in legislation.
The aim of the paper is to shed light on the theoretical background of the inclusion of health in the standard of living studies, and the use of two of its specifi c measures — life expectancy at birth and body height. Hence, the article describes the idea of capabilities and functionings developed by Amartya Sen as a proposed solution to the limitations of the classic measurement of the standard of living.
The paper presents the results of experimental validation of a set of innovative software services supporting processes of achieving, assessing and maintaining conformance with standards and regulations. The study involved several hospitals implementing the Accreditation Standard promoted by the Polish Ministry of Health. First we introduce NOR-STA services that implement the TRUST-IT methodology of argument management. Then we describe and justify a set of metrics aiming at assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of the services. Next we present values of the metrics that were built from the data collected. The paper concludes with giving the interpretation and discussing the results of the measurements with respect to the objectives of the validation experiment.
This is both a review of previous research and a theoretical paper on altruism. It discusses one of the crucial theories of prosocial involvement: the distinction between endo- and exocentric prosocial motivation depending on the type of internal gratification for the involved individual: satisfaction of the Self vs. improving the circumstances of another person. The relevance and validity of this distinction finds support in early empirical studies. Contemporary findings suggest a more universal regulatory context of this idea, which transcends the domain of altruism and extends to the more general issues of the Self and social perception. In addition, it anticipates a number of cognitive biases consequential to the relationship between endocentric regulation and the Self. The findings support a reinterpretation of the original term “prosocial motivation” and the use of a broader interpretative construct “prosocial orientation”, understood as a complex syndrome of regulation that encompasses the processes of social perception, value judgements, and Self-regulation, both explicit and subliminal.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the opportunities and the challenges associated with the adoption of Information technology in the Indian SMEs. The significant usage of Information Technology in the SME sector and the factors that influence the business are discussed. SME industry in India has shown substantial growth over the past few years. The implementation of new technologies tends to offer better opportunities to the companies particularly for SME sector in India. However, there are a few challenges associated with technology adaptation that needs attention. This research is focused on improved business quality and responsiveness towards market opportunities while using the latest technologies available. This study is based on a review of research journals and articles including news magazines concerning current SME market situation in India. The current market scenario of Indian SMEs, as well as several policy interventions and new trends in the market were discussed.
There may be circumstances where academic degrees or the title of professor are obtained deceitfully, i.e. in breach of copyrights or moral principles in science. Dishonesty in scientific research constitutes gross misconduct because it is executed in order to appropriate ideas, findings, collocations and theses of others, without accurate citation of the source. It also entails infringement of intellectual property rights. Scientific misconduct in ethical and legal aspect is explicit. It disqualifies the offender as a scientist. The unlawful act of obtaining an academic degree (Ph.D.) or the title of professor in such a deceitful manner, irrespective of how much time has passed, shall not make the resumption condition fall under the statute of limitations. Thus, it enables the reopening of procedures to deprive the person who deceitfully obtained an academic degree or title of this degree or title.