The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of the criteria of project success and the complexity of the subject in the context of environmental and nature conservation projects financed by European Union. The article presents various definitions of project success The article deals with definition and evaluation process of the project success as well as specific conditions of EU project management. Thematic evolution and trends in defining project success are presented through systematic review of literature on project management. The first part of the article focus on reviewing different approaches to the subject of criteria of project success, which is the crucial part of the proces. It is impossible to determine critical success factors (CSF) without deciding on the criteria of the project success. Project success definition is an important and complex project management issue. The success of the projects was considered for the last 50 years in a various ways and by different project management scholars. There is a consensus about the importance of this aspect for the project management practice. However, the project management in the context of EU-funded projects is still subject of further research, as this issue was not yet properly analyzed. The article presents the specific of the environmental and nature conservation EU-funded project judgement proces. The procedures and the scope of the formal and substantive assesment which is the part of selection procedure were described. The paper presents also how formal and substantive assesment criteria correspond with success criteria definitions created so far by the researchers. Moreover, the article analyses how existing asssesment criteria, precisely defined in EU programmes documentation and procedures, can be treated as EU project success criteria. The article presents also the most important challenges and issues in determining the set of success criteria based on assesment criteria set for regional operational programmes and Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment for 2014–2020 programming period.
Changes taking place in weathered bedrock and vegetation of the ground moraine of Werenskiold glacier during about 50 years are presented. These results are based on phytosociological survey and analysis of the population structure of Saxifraga oppositifolia in 20 experimental fields and the analysis of physical and chemical features of the soils. In the process of succession, with chemical features not much changed and spongy structure just beginning, the number of vascular plants did not increase. In the process of succession the gradual increase in the density of S. oppositifolia population was observed. The size of its individuals and the share of flowering individuals also increased.
Vegetation succession in front of five retreating glaciers was studied using phytosociological relevés (60) located at different distances between the Little Ice Age (LIA) moraines and the present glacier fronts around Petunia Bay. Approximate dating of succession stages was based on a study of the changing position of glacier fronts in the past approximately 100 years. The described succession corresponds to the uni−directional, non−replacement model of succession. All constituent species, except one, present in the nearby old tundra have colonized the glacier forelands since the end of the LIA. The first species appeared about 5 years after deglaciation. The latest succession stages closely resemble the old tundra.
The aim of the study was to specify the current status and direction of transformations of leaf beetle assemblages taking part in the rapid process of succession of vegetation towards the types of forest communities occurring in the Krzemionki Opatowskie reserve. At five sampling sites (in five plant associations) 30 species of Chrysomelidae were recorded. Five typical forest species (Chrysomela populi, Pyrrhalta viburni, Calomicrus pinicola, Altica brevicollis and Cryp-tocephalus labiatus) accounted for 16.67% of the number of species and 12.85% of the number of individuals caught in the reserve. The forest association richest in species (18) was Querco ro-boris-Pinetum (Que_Pin). This was followed by Tilio-Carpinetum association (Til_Car, 15 spp.), and then a mosaic of Tilio-Carpinetum and Querco roboris-Pinetum (Til_Car/Que_Pin), and Peucedano-Pinetum (Peu_Pin) (11 spp. each). The fewest number of species (10) were noted in Potentillo albae-Quercetum (Pot_Que). The most similar were the fauna of Potentillo albae--Quercetum (Pot_Que) and Querco roboris-Pinetum (Que_Pin) (55.08% similarity). The most distinct was the fauna of Peucedano-Pinetum (Peu_Pin). We can conclude that the structure of the leaf beetle assemblages in the forest associations studied in the reserve is at present an adaptive mixture of faunas characteristic of all the intermediate successional stages of vegetation, changing in this area in a relatively short time. The considerable diversity of fauna is the result of an ‘eco-tone in time’, i.e. the continuous presence of open-land species, which until recently had dominated here, accompanied by forest species characteristic of the current habitat types.
The purpose of this study was to determine the spatial structure of vegetation on the repository of the mine “Fryderyk” in Tarnowskie Góry. Tested area was located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (a large industrial region in Poland). It was a unique refuge habitat – Natura2000; PLH240008. The main aspect of this elaboration was to investigate the possible use of geotechniques and generally available geodata for mapping LULC changes and determining the spatial structure of vegetation. The presented study focuses on the analysis of a spatial structure of vegetation in the research area. This exploration was based on aerial images and orthophotomaps from 1947, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2011 and airborne laser scanning data (2011, ISOK project). Forest succession changes which occurred between 1947 and 2011 were analysed. The selected features of vegetation overgrowing spoil heap “Fryderyk” was determined. The results demonstrated a gradual succession of greenery on soil heap. In 1947, 84% of this area was covered by low vegetation. Tree expansion was proceeding in the westerly and northwest direction. In 2011 this canopy layer covered almost 50% of the research area. Parameters such as height of vegetation, crowns length and cover density were calculated by an airborne laser scanning data. These analyses indicated significant diversity in vertical and horizontal structures of vegetation. The study presents some capacities to use airborne laser scanning for an impartial evaluation of the structure of vegetation.
In knowledge based economy, which actually reflects the knowledge oriented modern society, career development of its members becomes the key factor, same as investing in career “portfolio”. In the article a career construct is invoked as an individual’s property considering individual career choices, individual career development planning and monitoring strategies. When addressing career related matter, one cannot overlook the issue of subjective meaning given to a career in the context of satisfactory outcome and success achievement experienced by the subject. Cognitively interesting issue addressed by the author are the results of research into evaluation of one’s own chances to succeed from the perspective of university students who are in the transition period from academic education to entering a job market.
The Lower Jurassic to Aalenian carbonate-clastic Dudziniec Formation exposed in the autochthonous unit of the Tatra Mountains (Kościeliska Valley) hosts neptunian dykes filled with various deposits. The development of the fissures took place in multiple stages, with the same fractures opening several times, as is indicated by their architecture, occurrence of internal breccias and arrangement of the infilling sediments. Various types of internal deposits were derived in a different manner and from different sources. Fine carbonate sediments, represented by variously coloured pelitic limestones, calcilutites and fine calcarenites, most probably come from uplifted and corroded carbonate massifs (possibly from the allochthonous units of the High-Tatric succession). Products of weathering, both in dissolved form and as small particles, were washed into the sedimentary basin of the autochthonous unit, and redeposited within the dykes. The sandy varieties of the infillings, represented by red, ferruginous calcareous sandstones, come directly from the host rocks or from loose sediments present on the sea bottom at the time of fracturing. The most probable age of the infilling sediments is Sinemurian to Pliensbachian. The occurrence of dykes of this age is yet another feature confirming that the sedimentary development of the Lower Jurassic sandy-carbonate facies in the autochthonous unit was strongly influenced by synsedimentary tectonic activity, such as block-faulting.
Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula) on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud− , silt−, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus , dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns) and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition) that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole−rock K−Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1) from about 51–50 Ma; and (2) 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano−clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.
Genetic diversity is often considered a major determinant of long term population persistence and its potential to adapt to variable environmental conditions. The ability of populations to maintain their genetic diversity across generations seems to be a major prerequisite for their sustainability, which is particularly important for keystone forest tree species. However, little is known about genetic consequences of demographic alterations occurring during natural processes of ecological succession involving changes in the species composition. Using microsatellites, we investigated genetic diversity of adult and offspring generations in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) populations coexisting in a naturally established old-growth forest stand, showing some symptoms of ongoing ecological succession from oak- to beech- dominated forest. In general, adult generations of both species exhibited high levels of genetic diversity (0.657 for beech; 0.821 for oak), which, however, depended on the sets of selected genetic markers. Nevertheless, several symptoms such as differences in genetic diversity indices between generations, significant levels of inbreeding (up to 0.029) and low estimates of effective population size (48-80) confirmed the declining status of the oak population. On the other hand, the uniform distribution of genetic diversity indices across generations, low levels of inbreeding (0.004), low genetic differentiation among adults and offspring and, most importantly, large estimates of effective population size (119-716), all supported beech as a successive and successful tree species in the studied forest stand.
The aim of this study was to determine the ecological characteristics of vascular plants colonizing serpentine mining waste dumps and quarries in Lower Silesia. The investigated flora was analyzed with regard to species composition, geographical-historical status, life forms, as well as selected ecological factors, such as light and trophic preferences, soil moisture and reaction, value of resistance to increased heavy metals content in the soil, seed dispersal modes and occurrence of mycorrhiza. There were 113 species of vascular plants, belonging to 28 families, found on seven sites in the study. The most numerous families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Only 13% of all plants recorded occurred on at least five of the study sites. The most numerous were species related to dry grassland communities, particularly of the Festuco-Brometea class, which included taxa endangered in the region of Lower Silesia: Avenula pratensis, Salvia pratensis, Festuca valesiaca. Apophytes dominated in the flora of the investigated communities. Hemicryptophytes were the most numerous group and therophytes were also abundant. The serpentine mining waste dumps and querries hosted heliophilous species which prefer mesic or dry habitats moderately poor in nutrients, featuring neutral soil reaction. On two study sites 30% of the flora composition consisted of species that tolerate an increased content of heavy metals in the soil. Anemochoric species were the most numerous with regard to types of seed dispersal. Species with an arbuscular type of mycorrhiza were definitely dominant in the flora of all the study sites, however, the number of nonmycorrhizal species was also relatively high. It was suggested that both the specific characteristics of the habitats from serpentine mining and the vegetation of adjacent areas had a major impact on the flora composition of the communities in the investigated sites.