The text comprises the evaluation of relationship between the qualitative planning tools and the Irish housing policy in the pre-crisis period, during the crisis (2009-2013) and the recovery. The tools that affect housing are understood as spatial planning, including governmental regulations on densification of the development and the housing quality as well as the special tools such as the urban design. Those regulatory tools were deployed with aims to safeguard the sustainable and socially viable housing structures. The Irish case illustrates the considerable innovation in introducing new housing standards and challenges with their efficiency. This can be attributed to the lack of integration with other elements that shaped the market – financing and actions of the private market, low efficiency of planning or the lack of the scale effect for the model developments. Despite their drawbacks these tools are continuously being used, as their foundational principles are still valid.
In view of the world’s recent changes in the mineral market, it is becoming increasingly important to ensure the sustainable and secure supply of raw materials, both within the European Union and in other high-developed countries. In response to this global challenge, as part of the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Program for Research & Innovation, the 36-month INTRAW project was launched in February 2015 to foster international cooperation on raw materials. The EU-funded INTRAW project was set up to map and develop new cooperation opportunities related to raw materials between the EU and other technologically advanced countries, such as: Australia, Canada, Japan, South Africa and the United States. The first stage of the project was a review of conditions for the stable supply of raw materials from primary and secondary sources in selected countries: the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa and Japan. The results of the work are two groups of comprehensive reports. The first of these is a broad contextual analysis of geological, environmental, political, technical -economic and social factors conducive to the effective management of mineral resources. The second group is operational reports, carried out in three thematic blocks: industry and trade, research and innovation, education. The analysis clearly shows that the basis for effective action in this area is a stable political, economic and institutional environment, which is friendly to mining and new entities wishing to invest in modern technologies, the exploration and exploitation of deposits. Investors are encouraged by tax regulations, sometimes also by direct government financial support and efficient licensing procedures. The well-defined protection of property rights, also for deposits is equally important. Selected aspects of a wide analysis of determinants of competitiveness for these countries were presented in the article below.
In order to improve the efficiency and ensure the security of power supply used in a mine, this paper mainly studies the quasi-resonant flyback secondary power supply and analyzes its operational principles based on the requirements of soft-switching technology. In accordance with the maximum energy of a short-circuit and the request of maximum output voltage ripple, this paper calculates the spectrum value of the output filter capacitor and provides its design and procedures to determine the parameters of the main circuit of power supply. The correctness and availability of this theory are eventually validated by experiments.
A 6 km long stretch of the coast of Calypsostranda between Skilvika and Josephbukta, situated on the western side of Recherchefjorden, was investigated. It is made of an accumulative marine terrace at a height of 2–8 m a.s.l. (terrace 1) and width of 40–180 m, divided by a cliffed section in the frontal moraines of Renardbreen. From the character and intensity of changes, the area was divided into 6 zones. The aim was to analyse the dynamics of changes within coastal zone from 1936 to 2007 and to characterise the influence of various morphogenetic factors (marine, fluvial, cryospheric). The important element of this study has been to determine sources and directions of sediment transport. The dynamics of changes of coastal zone in the Calypsostranda region was established from archival maps and precise GPS measurements for the periods: 1936–1960, 1960–1990, 1990–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–2006, 2006–2007. Comparing the extension of shoreline between 1936 and 2007 showed that there was more erosion than accumulation. Nearly 110 000 m 2 of the area of terrace 1 decreased, whereas about 77 000 m 2 appeared. The net balance for 1936–2007 was about −32 700 m 2 , on average over the whole length of the shoreline, it re − treated by 5.7 m (0.08 m a −1 ). The cease of sediment delivery in the extramarginal sandur fans area of Renardbreen caused intensification of marine processes, that made the shore − line retreat by over 100 m. Continuing sediment delivery from the Scottelva catchment, with contribution of material from erosion of the north end of the shoreline studies, caused the aggradation of coastal zone by over 60 m near its mouth.
The scope of the paper refers to long- and medium-run trends of labour supply in Poland. The main purpose is to determine current trends in the labour supply and its projections till the year 2050. In the theoretical part of the paper determinants of labour supply are considered. The projections are based on the population forecasts till 2050 made by the Central Statistical Office of Poland (CSO) and by the authors’ own simulations. Several variants of upper limit of working age and activity rates are taken into account. The population forecasts by the CSO indicate it will occur big decrease of working age population till 2050. The biggest decrease will refer to the group of working age 18–59/64 years and the lowest decrease in the age group 18–66 years. The analysis shows that the declines in labour supply in the years 2020–2050 will occur in all variants of working age population, the biggest decline in the variant assuming the age group 18–59/64 and the smallest decline – in the group 15–74 years. Retirement age is of big importance for the size of labour supply. This is why it is recommended to encourage older people to prolong their economic activity. It is also necessary to increase activity rates in the working age population.
The paper refers to planning deliveries of food products (especially those available in certain seasons) to the recipients: supermarket networks. The paper presents two approaches to solving problems of simultaneous selection of suppliers and transportation modes and construction of product flow schedules with these transportation modes. Linear mathematical models have been built for the presented solution approaches. The cost criterion has been taken into consideration in them. The following costs have been taken into account: purchase of products by individual recipients, transport services, storing of products supplied before the planned deadlines and penalties for delays in supply of products. Two solution approaches (used for transportation planning and selection of suppliers and selection of transportation modes) have been compared. The monolithic approach calls for simultaneous solutions for the problems of supplier selection and selection of transportation modes. In the alternative (hierarchical) solution approach, suppliers are selected first, and then transportation companies and their relevant transportation modes are selected. The results of computational experiments are used for comparison of the hierarchical and monolithic solution approaches.
In the over 150 years of hydrocarbon history, the year 2017 will be one of the many similar. However, it will be a breakthrough year for liquefied natural gas. In Asia, China grew to become the leader of import growth, becoming the second world importer, overtaking even South Korea and chasing Japan. The Panama Canal for LNG trade and the “Northern Passage” was opened, so that Russian LNG supplies appeared in Europe. The year 2017 was marked by a dramatic shortening of the length of long-term concluded contracts, their shorter tenure and reduction of volumes – that is, it was another period of market commoditization of this energy resource. The article describes the current state of LNG production and trade till 2018. It focuses on natural gas production in the United States, Qatar, Australia, Russia as countries that can produce and supply LNG to the European Union. The issue of prices and the contracts terms in 2017 was analyzed in detail. The authors stress that the market is currently characterized by an oversupply and will last at least until mid–2020. Novatek, Total – Yamal-LNG project leaders have put the condensing facility at 5.5 million tons into operation. The Christophe de Margerie oil tanker was the first commercial unit to cross the route to Norway and then further to the UK without icebreakers and set a new record on the North Sea Road. In 2017, the Russian company increased its share in the European gas market from 33.1 to 34.7%. In 2017, Russia and Norway exported record volumes of „tubular” – classic natural gas to Europe (and Turkey), 194 and 122 billion m3 respectively, which is 15 and 9 billion m3 more natural gas than in 2016. The thesis was put forward that Russia would not easily give up its sphere of influence and would do everything and use various mechanisms, not only on the market, that it would simply be more expensive and economically unprofitable than natural gas. It was also emphasized that the pressure of the technically possible and economically viable redirection to European terminals of methane carriers landed in the American LNG, results in Gazprom not having a choice but to adjust its prices. The Americans, but also any other supplier (Australia?) can simply do the same and this awareness alone is enough for Russian gas to be present in Europe at a good price.
The article concerns safety of power supply for the final consumers, especially its two comprising elements, which are generation adequacy and distribution system reliability. Generation adequacy has been defined with Loss of Load Probability (LOLP), Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Energy Not Supplied (ENS) indices. Conclusions from generation adequacy forecast prepared by ENSTO-E for Poland compared with other European countries for the years 2020 and 2025 have been discussed along with the resulting threats. Interruptions in energy supply have been characterised by power discontinuity indicator SAIDI. Finally, a reliability and adequacy analysis have been performed for different scenarios of the Polish power system operation in order to assess possibilities of using distributed generation as a backup power source. Based on a simulation model created using the DIgSILENT Power Factory software, the reliability and adequacy calculations have been performed with the probabilistic non-sequential Monte Carlo method and they are followed by a discussion of the obtained results.
As experience shows the practical, reliable assessment and optimisation of total costs of logistical processes implemented in supply chains of foundry plants is a quite complex and complicated process, because it requires to enclose all, without exception, performed actions, including them in various reference cross-sections, systematic activities and finally transforming them in a totally homogenous collection. Only solid analysis and assessment of assortment management in logistical supply systems in foundry plants of particular assortment groups allows to lower the supply costs significantly. In the article the analysis and assessment of the newest implemented optimising algorithms are presented in the process stock management of selected material groups used in a production process of a chosen foundry plant. A practical solution to solve a problem of rotary stock cost minimisation is given as well as of costs while creating a stock with the usage of economical volume and value of order.
The aim of the paper is to compare nitrate concentrations in samples of supply water as well as water from deep and dug wells located in the eastern region of Poland. Additionally, samples of bottled water (spring and natural mineral), certifi ed by the Institute of Mother and Child and the Children’s Memorial Health Institute, were subjected to analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, health risks related to the occurrence of methemoglobinemia in neonates and infants were evaluated. The risk analysis was performed according to the procedure recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrate concentrations in the examined samples ranged from: 0.153–161.1 mg/l. The lowest concentration of nitrates was determined in the samples of bottled water, the highest being detected in the water from dug wells. It was found that nitrate concentration in samples of bottled and supply water did not pose any risk to the health of neonates and infants. The highest health risk related to methemoglobinemia occurs for neonates consuming water originating from dug wells. The risk decreases along with the age of an infant.
Performance measurement system in supply chain management (SCM) has been receiving increasing attention by business organizations as a way to evaluate efficiency in supply chain activities. Assessing the performance of supply chain uncovers the gap between planning and actual performance as to trace the potential problems thus ascertain necessary areas for improvement. This research aims to investigate the application of performance measurement system in SCM as well as exploring its relationship with organization’s performance among Malaysian manufacturing firms. By utilizing the questionnaire method, respondents involved were requested to indicate the extent to which they use a number of 24 selected performance measures that are related to SCM. The results show that the majority of the observed manufacturing firms utilize specific performance measurement tools in evaluating the supply chain performance. The current performance measurement techniques, the Balanced Score Card is adopted by around a quarter of the total responding firms followed by Supply Chain Operations References Model – SCOR, which attracts total users of only a fifth of the total respondents. In particular, performance measures under customer service category recorded the highest number of usage followed by cost-based performance measures and operations management. The results of this investigation also unveil few major points that are important to be highlighted. Firstly, the obtained outcomes of this study bring to light the significant relationships between the utilization of supply chain performance measures under customer service, operations management and organizational performance. In addition, this study discovered a significant correlation between the size of the organization and the extent of use of supply chain performance measures and how these two variables positively correlated. Lastly, the findings also suggested that the performance measures for SCM has been playing a crucial role in enhancing the performance of the organizations and is increasingly operated as the firms grow in size. Based on the brief highlighted points listed above, it is not an exaggeration to say that this research contributes new information to the body of knowledge in performance measurement system in SCM and its associations with organizational performance.
The paper looks at the issues of operation safety of the national power grid and the characteristics of the national power grid in the areas of transmission and distribution. The issues of operation safety of the national transmission and distribution grid were discussed as well as threats to operation safety and security of the electricity supply related to these grids. Failures in the transmission and distribution grid in 2017, caused by extreme weather conditions such as: a violent storm at the night of 11/12.08.2017, hurricane Ksawery on 5–8.10.2017, and hurricane Grzegorz on 29–30.10.2017, the effects of which affected tens of thousands of electricity consumers and led to significant interruptions in the supply of electricity were presented. At present, the national power (transmission and distribution) grid does not pose a threat to the operation safety and security of the electricity supply, and is adapted to the current typical conditions of electricity demand and the performance of tasks during a normal state of affairs, but locally may pose threats, especially in extreme weather conditions. A potentially high threat to the operation safety of the national power grid is closely linked to: age, technical condition and the degree of depletion of the transmission and distribution grids, and their high failure rate due to weather anomalies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and modernize the 400 and 220 kV transmission grids, cross-border interconnections, and the 110 kV distribution grid (especially in the area of large urban agglomerations), and the MV distribution grid (especially in rural areas). The challenges faced by the transmission and distribution grid operators within the scope of investment and operating activities, with a view to avoiding or at least reducing the scale of grid failures in the case of future sudden high-intensity atmospheric phenomena, are presented.
Due to globalized business operations, companies in different economic sectors are part of complex supply chain networks. Their value-added processes comprise product and information flows, e.g. with a focus on manufacturing, service or trade. Until the final product is delivered to the end customer, it needs to pass many different processes in cooperating organizations. As a result, there a lot of business-to-business (B2B) interactions with crossenterprise transactions, often including cross-border communications and sometimes even cross-industry trades with technological and often cultural implications. Especially the interfaces of supply chain networks are prone to inefficiencies, misunderstandings and delays due to a lack of standardized B2B transactions, which leads to waste in form of rework, errors and mistakes. In addition, new customers are hard to find for the manufacturing or trading company, since potential customers are so far limited to a regional network. The advantages of extending the customer base still need to be explored by many organizations. This paper discusses the opportunities by streamlining the communication along supply chain networks in a general fashion and then describes the application in a B2B automotive retail business. A concept of a web-based trading platform, which provides a seamless service for all steps of a convenient and efficient used vehicle remarketing business, is developed. It includes all phases, like offering and price finding in a comprehensive online platform, which also covers further activities, such as logistic services, financial transactions, and a mandatory feedback loop. The suggested B2B vehicle-trading platform enables a quick turnover of each transaction, which is analyzed and optimized based on the application of cross-enterprise Value Stream Management.
The paper attempted to define the basis of city transformations that conform to the smart concept. The objective of the paper is to relate the concept of a smart city, which is quite frequently discussed in literature related to the subject, with functioning and development of the city’s economy, in a way that would allow monitoring economic processes taking place in the city, and also to find a response to the question as to the extent to which the smart city creates a new city economy. Does it expand the city economy by new elements, generate new economic mechanisms, allow the implementation of growth paths different than those to date? This objective is particularised by a description of selected issues of urban economics. With this in mind the paper discusses an approach to managing supply and demand on the basis of theoretical assumptions defined by Mudie and Cottam (1993) transposed on realities connected with provision of municipal public services in conditions of a smart city. Furthermore, sample solutions were presented related to the smart city, which reflect theoretical conclusions contained in the paper. The paper ends with a presentation of logics related to growing economy in a smart city. The economy of a smart city, ultimately an intelligent economy of the city, is created in a laminar way. Under the pressure of technological, social and political surroundings the city is permeated by social and culture intelligence, forming gradually a new economic quality. In the paper we emphasised that the concept of a smart city still remains a question of the future to a much bigger extent than one of the present time. A smart city slowly emerges from the combination of diverse megatrends and development trends characteristic for communities and economies of the second decade of the 21st century.
Public Supply of Rental Housing under The National Housing Program – Possible Scenarios of Changes in the Rental Market. The aim of the study is to conduct analyzes of possible scenarios of changes in the housing sector after launching the Plus Apartment Program. Therefore, the purpose of housing policy should be to increase the availability of apartments in the form of rental. The research problem is the answer to the following questions: Is it feasible to intervene in the construction market to increase rental supply? What impact on the private rental market may have on the supply of public housing about the rent lower than the market? What impact can the supply of housing under the Plus Apartment Program on the investment and rental of housing for social building society? In which municipalities and on what scale should I implement the Plus Apartment Program? The study hypothesized that the impact of the public supply of apartments for rent under the Plus Apartment Program on residential markets will depend on local conditions of market development and local housing situation.
The purpose of this article is to present a new bell type water well construction with circulating treatment and its application. The construction of the water well has been developed and research has been conducted using physical and electrical modelling as well as in the practical field. Researches in this work are of analytical and experimental character. As the results of the research, optimal physical parameters of the constructions have been found and analytical empirical formulae have been derived to calculate hydraulic parameters. Recommendation for application has been presented. The results received in this work can be used for the application of well construction. Further research is required to improve the physical and the hydraulic parameters of the proposed construction. The work has scientific and practical interest.
In this article, we review the research state of the bullwhip effect in supply chains with stochastic lead times. We analyze problems arising in a supply chain when lead times are not deterministic. Using real data from a supply chain, we confirm that lead times are stochastic and can be modeled by a sequence of independent identically distributed random variables. This underlines the need to further study supply chains with stochastic lead times and model the behavior of such chains.