Spitsbergen glaciers react rapidly to changes in the polar environment, which is expressed in differences in extent of their fronts and surface geometry. The Scott Glacier, which is situated in the NW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land, is an example of the glacier that has undergone almost continuous recession since the Little Ice Age, interrupted by surges. The variations in recession are characterised based on multiannual data with particularly consideration of the period 1990–2005 and the season 2005/2006. Acceleration of front recession and lowering the surface was found only within the tongue up to a height of about 220 m a.s.l. Whereas, in the area situated in the zone of rock steps and above in the ablation zone, the change of glacier surface ablation (Dh) has been recorded compared to the mean annual recession for the period 1990–2005. Moreover, for the upper firn field, the positive surface ablation (DhS7 = +0.19 m) was observed. As the result of progressive reduction of the Scott Glacier mass, with the participation of other factors (bedrock relief among others), new surfaces of roche moutonnée are uncovering particularly in the tongue zone.
Bacteria from the Simkaniaceae family are intracellular parasites belonging to the Chlamydiales order, detected in surface waters, drinking water, chlorine water, and in wastewater. Its main representative, Simkania negevensis, is pathogenic to humans and animals, especially fishes, as it principally causes respiratory tract diseases. Bacteria from this family are also capable of surviving and existing in free-living amoebas, omnipresent in the natural environment, which makes them an additional risk for human and animal health. The aim of the present study was to search for representatives of this family in freshwaters from the Odra River and two municipal lakes (Rusałka and Goplana). Out of 100 water samples analysed, the sequence of bacteria of Simkaniaceae family was found just in 1 percent, because phylogenetic analysis revealed that the obtained OdraWCh30 sequence shows 93% similarity to Simkania negevensis strain Z as well as 87% similarity to Candidatus Syngnamydia salmonis isolate Ho-2008 and Candidatus Syngnamydia salmonis isolate VS10102006 and 84-85% similarity to endosymbiont of Xenoturbella westbladi, Simkaniaceae bacterium clone SM081012-5s and Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia strain Pi3-2. This is the first case of detecting sequence of bacteria of Simkaniaceae family in the aquatic environment in Poland.
The paper presents a spectral formulation of surface profile irregularity in a wideband frequency range for roughness, waviness and shape components along the measured length. A unique distribution of roughness and waviness components is proposed, according to the nature of their origination in the course of machining with tools of defined cutting edge, as distinct from standard filtration in measurements of surface irregularities. Differences resulting from both formulations are outlined as well as the method of determining the frequency of component separation for surface roughness and waviness.
The prediction of machined surface parameters is an important factor in machining centre development. There is a great need to elaborate a method for on-line surface roughness estimation [1-7]. Among various measurement techniques, optical methods are considered suitable for in-process measurement of machined surface roughness. These techniques are non-contact, fast, flexible and tree-dimensional in nature. The optical method suggested in this paper is based on the vision system created to acquire an image of the machined surface during the cutting process. The acquired image is analyzed to correlate its parameters with surface parameters. In the application of machined surface image analysis, the wavelet methods were introduced. A digital image of a machined surface was described using the one-dimensional Digital Wavelet Transform with the basic wavelet as Coiflet. The statistical description of wavelet components made it possible to develop the quality measure and correlate it with surface roughness [8-11]. For an estimation of surface roughness a neural network estimator was applied [12-16]. The estimator was built to work in a recurrent way. The current value of the Ra estimation and the measured change in surface image features were used for forecasting the surface roughness Ra parameter. The results of the analysis confirmed the usability of the application of the proposed method in systems for surface roughness monitoring.
3D printing in FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) technology is commonly used, mainly in the preparation of prototypes, but also for the production of ready-made elements. Objects printed using the FDM method have characteristic, adverse surface features related to the limitations of this technology. That is why surface treatment of 3D prints becomes crucial. One of the method is metal plating of elements. The most frequently used material in FDM technology is PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Study of surface parameters determination for ABS prints after galvanic copper plating is presented in this paper. For this purpose, samples printed with ABS were smoothed in acetone vapour. Most favorable parameters of the surface were obtained for samples that had contact with acetone vapour for 60 minutes. Ultimately, surface analysis of samples after graphite coating and subjected to copper plating was performed. It was found that surface parameters are close to results obtained with traditional methods of metal processing.
This study illustrates the benefits of statistical techniques to analyze spatial and temporal variations in water quality. In this scope water quality differentiation caused by anthropogenic and natural factors in the Tahtali and Balçova reservoirs in western Turkey was investigated using discriminant analysis-DA, Mann Whitney U techniques. Effectiveness of pollution prevention measures was analyzed by Mann Kendall and Sen’s Slope estimator methods. The water quality variables were divided into three groups as physical-inorganic, organic and inorganic pollution parameters for the study. Results showed that water quality between reservoirs was differentiated for “physical-inorganic” and “organic pollution” parameters. Degree of influence of water quality by urbanization was higher in the Tahtali reservoir and in general, no trend detection at pollution indicators explained by effective management practices at both sites.
This study involves the implementation of an economic order quantity (EOQ) model which is an inventory control method in a ceramic factory. Two different methods were applied for the calculation of EOQs. The first method is to determine EOQ values using a response surface method-based approach (RSM). The second method uses conventional EOQ calculations. To produce a ceramic product, 281 different and additive materials may be used. First, Pareto (ABC) analysis was performed to determine which of the materials have higher priority. Because of this analysis, the value of 21 items among 281 different materials and additives were compared to the ratio of the total product. The ratio was found to be 70.4% so calculations were made for 21 items. Usage value for every single item for the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, were obtained from the company records. Eight different demand forecasting methods were applied to find the amount of the demand in EOQ. As a result of forecasting, the EOQ of the items were calculated by establishing a model. Also, EOQ and RSM calculations for the items were made and both calculation results were compared to each other. Considering the obtained results, it is understood that RSM can be used in EOQ calculations rather than the conventional EOQ model. Also, there are big differences between the EOQ values which were implemented by the company and the values calculated. Because of this work, the RSM-based EOQ approach can be used to decide on the EOQ calculations as a way of improving the system performance.
This paper concerns the issues of measurement techniques, analysis and assessment of the machined surface geometric structure. The aim of this work was to show the application of surface analysis in diagnosing the causes of discrepancies occurring in the manufacturing process, which may result from ill-matched (poorly fitting) process parameters. An appropriate system of control and interpretation of results may allow early reaction to unfavorable trends (for example blunting of the tool) and prevention of undesirable defects. The subject of research was a waste basket used in the construction of retaining sewer systems. In this paper, the quality of the waste basket as well as its manufacturing process were analyzed and assessed. The research was carried out with the use of three measurement stands, i.e. optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer (WLI). The surface analysis proved to be important from the viewpoint of outlining the production process as well as improving the product quality. The software used for topographical analysis appeared to be significant for the success of the analysis, providing notable economic effects, namely the lack of defects.
Residual stress has a great influence on the metal, but it is difficult to measure at small area using a general method. Residual stress calculations using the Vickers indentation can solve this problem. In this paper, a numerical simulation has been made for the residual stress measurement method of metal material deformed by high-speed impact. Then, the stress-strain curve at the high-speed deformation was confirmed through actual experiments, and the residual stresses generated thereafter were calculated by the Vickers indenter method. A Vickers indentation analysis under the same conditions was performed at the position where a residual stress of about 169.39 MPa was generated. Experiments were carried out and high speed impact was applied to the specimen to generate residual stress. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to identify residual stresses in various metals with various shapes through Vickers indentation measurements, and to use them for process and quality control.
The paper describes the influence of the machining operation on a surface, which disturbs the projection of the tool profile in the form of its relative movements with respect to the object. The elements of the machine tool undergo constant wear during the machining process, it is therefore important to recognize the effects of their influence on the surface's irregularities. Amplitude-frequency analysis of lateral profiles has been used to evaluate and changes of turned lateral profiles. The results of simulation of radial and axial effects of the machine tool on surface and their spectral components were analyzed. Surfaces obtained in similar machining conditions on lathes operated in various time periods were analyzed spectrally. From the analysis of surface irregularity changes caused by disturbances in movements of the tool against the object, testifying the wear of main machine elements during its operation, the modulated, amplitude-frequency character of changes in surface irregularities of workpiece can be noticed.
The wear behaviour of Cr3C2-25% NiCr laser alloyed nodular cast iron sample were analyzed using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The influence of sliding velocity, temperature and load on laser alloyed sample was focused and the microscopic images were used for metallurgical examination of the worn-out sites. Box-Behnken method was utilised to generate the mathematical model for the condition parameters. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based models are varied to analyse the process parameters interaction effects. Analysis of variance was used to analyse the developed model and the results showed that the laser alloyed sample leads to a minimum wear rate (0.6079×10–3 to 1.8570×10–3 mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.43 to 0.53). From the test results, it was observed that the experimental results correlated well with the predicted results of the developed mathematical model.
The task of generating fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) models of objects or scenes through a sequence of non-calibrated images is an active field of research. The recent development in algorithm optimization has resulted in many automatic solutions that can provide an accurate 3D model from texture-full objects. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is an image-based method that uses discriminative point-based feature identifier, such as SIFT, to locate feature points in the images. This method faces difficulties when presented with the objects made of homogenous or texture-less surfaces. To reconstruct such surfaces a well-known technique is to apply an artificial variety by covering the surface with a random texture pattern prior to the image capturing process. In this work, we designed three series of image patterns which are tested based on the contrast and density ratio which increases from the first to the last pattern within the same series. The performance of the patterns is evaluated by reconstructing the surface of a texture-less object and comparing it with the true data. Using the best-found patterns from the experiments, a 3D model of a Moai statue is reconstructed. The experimental results demonstrate that the density and structure of a pattern highly affects the quality of the reconstruction.
The objective of the investigation was to identify surface roughness after turning with wedges of coated sintered carbide. The investigation included predicting the average surface roughness in the dry machining of Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) and the determination of load curves together with roughness profiles for various cutting conditions. The load curves and roughness profiles for various cutting wedges and variable cutting parameters were compared. It has been shown that dry cutting leads to a decrease in friction for lubricated surfaces, providing a small initial contact area where the surface is contacted. The study has been performed within a production facility during the production of electric motor parts and deep-well pumps.
Geometric deviations of free-form surfaces are attributed to many phenomena that occur during machining, both systematic (deterministic) and random in character. Measurements of free-form surfaces are performed with the use of numerically controlled CMMs on the basis of a CAD model, which results in obtaining coordinates of discrete measurement points. The spatial coordinates assigned at each measurement point include both a deterministic component and a random component at different proportions. The deterministic component of deviations is in fact the systematic component of processing errors, which is repetitive in nature. A CAD representation of deterministic geometric deviations might constitute the basis for completing a number of tasks connected with measurement and processing of free-form surfaces. The paper presents the results of testing a methodology of determining CAD models by estimating deterministic geometric deviations. The research was performed on simulated deviations superimposed on the CAD model of a nominal surface. Regression analysis, an iterative procedure, spatial statistics methods, and NURBS modelling were used for establishing the model.
Modern production technology requires new ways of surface examination and a special kind of surface profile parameters. Industrial quality inspection needs to be fast, reliable and inexpensive. In this paper it is shown how stochastic surface examination and its proper parameters could be a solution for many industrial problems not necessarily related with smoothing out a manufactured surface. Burnishing is a modern technology widely used in aircraft and automotive industries to the products as well as to process tools. It gives to the machined surface high smoothness, and good fatigue and wear resistance. Every burnished material behaves in a different manner. Process conditions strongly influence the final properties of any specific product. Optimum burnishing conditions should be preserved for any manufactured product. In this paper we deal with samples made of conventional tool steel – Sverker 21 (X153CrMoV12) and powder metallurgy (P/M) tool steel – Vanadis 6. Complete investigations of product properties are impossible to perform (because of constraints related to their cost, time, or lack of suitable equipment). Looking for a global, all-embracing quality indicator it was found that the correlation function and the frequency analysis of burnished surface give useful information for controlling the manufacturing process and evaluating the product quality. We propose three new indicators of burnishing surface quality. Their properties and usefulness are verified with the laboratory measurement of material samples made of the two mentioned kinds of tool steel.