The Hornsund region is characterised by a topoclimatic variation, which results principally from the local orography, the vicinity of open sea and the two contrasting environments: non-glaciated and glaciated. The specific types of atmospheric circulation determine the local thermal differences. The west coast is characterised by the most favourable thermal conditions, where air temperature is largely determined by foehn processes. The temperature at the Baranowski Station is 0.8°C higher on average than that of the Polish Polar Station on the northern shore of Hornsund . The temperature in the northern shore of the fjord happens to be higher than that on the west coast, which is attributed to the NW cyclonic inflow of cool Arctic air masses. During intermediate weather, when ground frost-thaw takes place, the northern shore of Hornsund is warmer by 0.5°C ; whereas, during moderately frosty weather, it is warmer by 0.2°C than the west coast. The differences result from the effect of the warmer fjord waters on the surrounding air temperature. During moderately warm weather, more favourable conditions occur near the Baranowski Station, expressed by the mean temperature difference of 0.9°C. The greatest temperature difference of 1.5°C on average is normally recorded during warm weather.
A vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-ton forging steel ingot has been performed by curtesy of the CELSA – Huta Ostrowiec plant. Some metallographic studies were able to reveal not only the chilled undersized grains under the ingot surface but columnar grains and large equiaxed grains as well. Additionally, the structural zone within which the competition between columnar and equiaxed structure formation was confirmed by metallography study, was also revealed. Therefore, it seemed justified to reproduce some of the observed structural zones by means of numerical calculation of the temperature field. The formation of the chilled grains zone is the result of unconstrained rapid solidification and was not subject of simulation. Contrary to the equiaxed structure formation, the columnar structure or columnar branched structure formation occurs under steep thermal gradient. Thus, the performed simulation is able to separate both discussed structural zones and indicate their localization along the ingot radius as well as their appearance in term of solidification time.