A new method for computation of positive realizations of given transfer matrices of fractional linear continuous-time linear systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of positive realizations of transfer matrices are given. A procedure for computation of the positive realizations is proposed and illustrated by examples.
In this paper, we present a synthesis of the parameters of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the reconstruction of the distributed strain affecting the grating, performed by means of its reflection spectrum. For this purpose, we applied the transition matrix method and the Nelder-Mead nonlinear optimization method. Reconstruction results of the strain profile carried out on the basis of a simulated reflection spectrum as well as measured reflection spectrum of the FBG indicate good agreement with the original strain profile; the profile reconstruction errors are within the single digit percentage range. We can conclude that the Nelder-Mead optimization method combined with the transition matrix method can be used for distributed sensing problems.
The paper presents proposal of a model of the fluidized bed boiler adapted for use in model-based controllers e.g. predictive, adaptive or internal model control (IMC). The model has been derived in the form of transfer function matrix which allows its direct implementation in the controller structure. Formulated model takes into consideration the principal cross-coupling between process variables which enables the opportunity to search for feasibility of decoupling control. The results of the identification of the dynamics of the 2 MW industrial bubbling fluidized bed boiler using the proposed model form was presented. According to the experimental data it was found that despite of introduced simplifications presented model allows the boiler behavior prediction.
The invariant properties of the stability, reachability, observability and transfer matrices of positive linear electrical circuits with integer and fractional orders are investi- gated. It is shown that the stability, reachability, observability and transfer matrix of positive linear systems are invariant under their integer and fractional orders.
The notion of the normal transfer matrix and the notion of the structure decomposition of normal transfer matrix for 2D general model are introduced. Necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the existence of the structure decomposition of normal transfer matrix are established. A procedure for computation of the structure decomposition is proposed and illustrated by the numerical example. It is shown that the impulse response matrix of the normal model is independent of the polynomial part of its structure decomposition.
Noise control is essential in an enclosed machine room where the noise level has to comply with the occupational safety and health act. In order to overcome a pure tone noise with a high peak value that is harmful to human hearing, a traditional reactive muffler has been used. However, the traditional method for designing a reactive muffler has proven to be time-consuming and insufficient. In order to efficiently reduce the peak noise level, interest in shape optimization of a Helmholtz muffler is coming to the forefront. Helmholtz mufflers that deal with a pure tone have been adequately researched. However, the shape optimization of multi-chamber Helmholtz mufflers that deal with a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space has been mostly ignored. Therefore, this study analyzes the sound transmission loss (STL) and the best optimized design for a hybrid Helmholtz muffler under a space- constrained situation. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler is presented. Two numerical cases for eliminating one/two tone noises emitted from a machine room using six kinds of mufflers (muffler A~F) is also introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model has been checked using the experimental data. Eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone (130 Hz) in Case I reveals that muffler C composed of a one- chamber Helmholtz Resonator and a one-chamber dissipative element has a noise reduction of 54.9 (dB). Moreover, as indicated in Case II, muffler F, a two-chamber Helmholtz Resonator and a one-chamber dissipative element, has a noise reduction of 69.7 (dB). Obviously, the peak values of the pure tones in Case I and Case II are efficiently reduced after the muffler is added. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones using optimally shaped hybrid Helmholtz mufflers and a simulated annealing method within a constrained space is demonstrated.