By means of small wind turbines, it is possible to create distributed sources of electricity useful in areas with good wind conditions. Sometimes, however, it is possible to use small wind turbines also in areas characterized by lower average wind speeds during the year. At the small wind turbine design stage, various types of technical solutions to increase the speed of the wind stream, as well as to optimally orientate it, can be applied. The methods for increasing the efficiency of wind energy conversion into electricity in the case of a wind turbine include: the use of a diffuser shielding the turbine rotor and the optimization of blades mounted on the turbine rotor. In the paper, the influence of the diffuser and rotor blades geometry on the efficiency of an exemplary wind turbine for exploitation in the West Pomeranian Province is investigated. The analyses are performed for three types of the diffuser and for three types of rotor blades. Based on them, the most optimal shapes of the diffuser and blades are selected due to the efficiency of the wind turbine. For the turbine with the designed diffuser, calculations of the output power for the assumed different values of the average annual wind speed and the constant Betz power factor and the specified generator efficiency are made. In all the analyzed cases, the amount of energy that can be generated by the turbine during the year is also estimated. Important practical conclusions are formulated on the basis of these calculations. In the final part of the paper, a 3D model of the wind turbine with the diffuser and rotor blades chosen based on earlier analyses is presented. As a material for the diffuser and rotor blades, glass fiber type A is applied. By means of calculations using the finite element method, the limit displacement of the turbine structure under the influence of a hurricane wind are determined. Based on these calculations, the correctness of the modelled small wind turbine structure has been demonstrated.
Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-ﬁring hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.
In renewable systems, there may be conditions that can be either network error or power transmission line and environmental conditions such as when the wind speed is unbalanced and the wind turbine is connected to the grid. In this case, the control system is not damaged and will remain stable in the power transmission system. Voltage stability studies on an independent wind turbine at fault time and after fixing the error is one of the topics that can strengthen the future of independent collections. At the time of the fault, the network current increases dramatically, resulting in a higher voltage drop. Hence the talk of fast voltage recovery during error and after fixing the error and protection of rotor and grid side converters against the fault current and also protection against rising DC voltage (which sharply increases during error) is highly regarded. So, several improvements have been made to the construction of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) turbine such as: a) error detection system, b) DC link protection, c) crow bar circuit, d) block of the rotor and stator side converters, e) injecting reactive power during error, f) nonlinear control design for turbine blades, g) tuning and harmonization of controllers used to keep up the power quality and to stabilize the system output voltage in the power grid. First, the dynamic models of a wind turbine, gearbox, and DFIG are presented. Then the controllers are modeled. The results of the simulation have been validated in MATLAB/Simulink.