The compactness of dimension stone blocks was previously controlled through various methods that were partially based on personal experiences, acoustic and visual observance of materials. With the development of technology, the ultrasonic pulse method is frequently used for the examination of stone test pieces and with an analysis of acquired data through the tomography method, the compactness is determined. The monolith stone blocks that are found at a site contain hidden discontinuities. The technique of data acquisition and the use of various instruments enable a good overview of the block interior. With an increased number of measurements, a suitable classification is prepared that helps reduce modification costs and increases the quality of stone blocks. The control methodology of compactness is based on the passage of longitudinal waves through the stone block without damaging the block during control. High differences in speed show irregularities in the material. With the observation system, we can prepare a tomography of the measured profiles that show us the locations of irregularities that should be observed more closely. During in situ measurements, the data for comparison with measured results are acquired. Determination of critical locations is of extreme importance before the processing of the block into smaller stone products or during the reconstruction of older stone elements or sculptures. The purpose of “in situ” measurements is to prepare a simple and fast method for the evaluation of materials compactness and for production work.
An emerging ultrasonic technology aims to control high-pressure industrial processes that use liquids at pressures up to 800 MPa. To control these processes it is necessary to know precisely physicochemical properties of the processed liquid (e.g., Camelina sativa oil) in the high-pressure range. In recent years, Camelina sativa oil gained a significant interest in food and biofuel industries. Unfortunately, only a very few data characterizing the high-pressure behavior of Camelina sativa oil is available. The aim of this paper is to investigate high pressure physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of Camelina sativa oil, using efficient ultrasonic techniques, i.e., speed of sound measurements supported by parallel measurements of density. It is worth noting that conventional low-pressure methods of measuring physicochemical properties of liquids fail at high pressures. The time of flight (TOF) between the two selected ultrasonic impulses was evaluated with a cross-correlation method. TOF measurements enabled for determination of the speed of sound with very high precision (of the order of picoseconds). Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were performed for pressures 0.1–660 MPa, and temperatures 3–30XC. Isotherms of acoustic impedance Za, surface tension #27; and thermal conductivity k were subsequently evaluated. These physicochemical parameters of Camelina sativa oil are mainly influenced by changes in the pressure p, i.e., they increase about two times when the pressure increases from atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) to 660 MPa at 30XC. The results obtained in this study are novel and can be applied in food, and chemical industries.
This paper presents a solution that utilises ultrasonic technology to allow monitoring snow layer thickness or water level based on measurement from air. It describes the principle of operation of a measurement device using three methods of compensating for changing external factors affecting appliance’s precision. Block diagram of the device is also provided. In order to verify the proposed solutions, the research team tested the device in laboratory and operating conditions. The results obtained this way make it possible to select a configuration of device operation depending on the required measurement precision and limitations associated with installing the system for actual operation.